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CD1d is a glycoprotein expressed on some cells containing antigens, such as in the case of intracellular infection. They activate natural killer cells.

The gamma herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus evade immune system detection and persist in B cells by down regulating the expression of CD1d, enabling them to avoid immune recognition by natural killer cells.[1][2][3]

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  1. Sanchez, David Jesse; Gumperz, Jenny E.; Ganem, Don (May 2, 2005). "Regulation of CD1d expression and function by a herpesvirus infection". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 115 (5): 1369–1378. doi:10.1172/JCI200524041. ISSN 0021-9738. PMC 1087176. PMID 15864354.
  2. Chung, Brian K.; Tsai, Kevin; Allan, Lenka L.; Zheng, Dong Jun; Nie, Johnny C.; Biggs, Catherine M.; Hasan, Mohammad R.; Kozak, Frederick K.; van den Elzen, Peter (October 10, 2013). "Innate immune control of EBV-infected B cells by invariant natural killer T cells". Blood. 122 (15): 2600–2608. doi:10.1182/blood-2013-01-480665. ISSN 1528-0020. PMID 23974196.
  3. Priatel, John J; Chung, Brian K; Tsai, Kevin; Tan, Rusung (April 9, 2014). "Natural killer T cell strategies to combat Epstein–Barr virus infection". Oncoimmunology. 3. doi:10.4161/onci.28329. ISSN 2162-4011. PMC 4063158. PMID 25050206.