From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history

Choline is a major phospholipid and an essential nutrient used as a building block to several other biochemicals in the human body.[1] Although the body manufactures some choline, the majority of what is used needs to be consumed in food, such as eggs, meat, poultry, fish, cruciferous vegetables, peanuts, and dairy products.[2]

Purpose[edit | edit source]

Choline is used to produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.[1]

Sources[edit | edit source]

Although some choline can be made by the human body, dietary choline is also needed. Men deficient in choline have been found to develop liver and muscle damage, and have compromised kidney function.[1]

Choline is found in many different foods, including:

  • beef liver
  • egg
  • bacon
  • cod
  • dairy products
  • vegetarian and vegan sources include wheatgerm, soy beans and tofu, peanut butter, bread and spinach[1]

ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Studies utilizing brain MR spectroscopy have shown that CFS patients have elevated levels of choline in numerous brain regions, including the basal ganglia, occipital cortex, and left anterior cingulate. [3][4][5][6][7] These findings are possibly indicative of increased oxidative stress, abnormal phospholipid metabolism [8], or increased cell turnover in these regions of the brain. Elevated brain choline or an increased choline to creatine/creatinine ratio is a phenomenon that has been associated with neoplasia, inflammatory demyelination, and infection. [9][10]

Chemical formula[edit | edit source]


Supplements[edit | edit source]

Choline supplements include CDP-choline (citicoline), choline chloride, choline bitartrate, and other choline salts.[2]

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) can be used to treat choline deficiency.[1]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 van der Poll, MCG; Luiking, YC; Dejong, CHC; Soeters, PB (September 2, 2009). "Amino Acids". In Caballero, Benjamin (ed.). Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Oxford, UK: Academic Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-12-375661-9.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Choline". Linus Pauling Institute. April 28, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  3. Chaudhuri, A.; Condon, B.R.; Gow, J.W.; Brennan, D.; Hadley, D.M. (February 2003). "Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of basal ganglia in chronic fatigue syndrome:". NeuroReport. 14 (2): 225–228. doi:10.1097/00001756-200302100-00013. ISSN 0959-4965.
  4. Chaudhuri, A; Behan, P.O (September 2004). "In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy in chronic fatigue syndrome". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 71 (3): 181–183. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2004.03.009.
  5. Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Yamada, Eiji; Honda, Hajime; Moroi, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Masakatsu; Ohtani, Yoshinobu; Morishita, Shoji (January 2000). "Chronic fatigue syndrome in childhood". Brain and Development. 22 (1): 60–64. doi:10.1016/S0387-7604(99)00111-4.
  6. Puri, B.K.; Counsell, S.J.; Zaman, R.; Main, J.; Collins, A.G.; Hajnal, J.V.; Davey, N.J. (September 2002). "Relative increase in choline in the occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome: Occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 106 (3): 224–226. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0447.2002.01300.x.
  7. Mueller, Christina; Lin, Joanne C.; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Younger, Jarred W. (April 2020). "Evidence of widespread metabolite abnormalities in Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: assessment with whole-brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy". Brain Imaging and Behavior. 14 (2): 562–572. doi:10.1007/s11682-018-0029-4. ISSN 1931-7557. PMC 6612467. PMID 30617782.
  8. Puri, B.K (April 2004). "The use of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 70 (4): 399–401. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.12.015.
  9. "The puzzle of choline and lipid peak on spectroscopy". The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 45 (3): 903–907. September 1, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.ejrnm.2014.04.014. ISSN 0378-603X.
  10. Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Soni, Neetu; Kumar, Sunil; Khandelwal, Niranjan (March 2012). "Imaging of central nervous system viral diseases". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 35 (3): 477–491. doi:10.1002/jmri.22830.
  11. PubChem. "Choline". Retrieved May 3, 2019.