Omalizumab (Xolair) is a medication originally designed to reduce sensitivity to allergens and is used for treating chronic idiopathic urticaria and allergic asthma. It is a potential treatment for mast cell disorders.
Mechanism[edit | edit source]
It is a monoclonal antibody that binds to free immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood and interstitial fluid and to membrane-bound form of IgE (mIgE) on the surface of mIgE-expressing B cells. It inhibits the binding of IgE to FcεRI on mast cells and basophils by binding to an antigenic epitope on IgE that overlaps with the site to which FcεRI binds. In this sense, it is a potent mast cell stabilizer.
Research on mast cell disorders[edit | edit source]
In a study of 55 French patients with mast cell disorders treated with omalizumab, 43 patients achieved a "best response" and 76.7% of the responding patients achieved a persistent response (three months or longer.) Median time to first response was 2 months and median time to best response was 6 months. One severe adverse event occurred, with researchers suggesting this recommends initiating treatment in hospital, but otherwise found the safety profile acceptable.
References[edit | edit source]
- "A new therapy to calm down mast cells". American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Apr 9, 2019. Retrieved Jul 28, 2019.
antibody - Antibodies or immunoglobulin refers to any of a large number of specific proteins produced by B cells that act against an antigen in an immune response.
membrane - The word "membrane" can have different meanings in different fields of biology. In cell biology, a membrane is a layer of molecules that surround its contents. Examples of cell-biology membranes include the "cell membrane" that surrounds a cell, the "mitochondrial membranes" that form the outer layers of mitochondria, and the "viral envelope" that surrounds enveloped viruses. In anatomy or tissue biology, a membrane is a barrier formed by a layer of cells. Examples of anatomical membranes include the pleural membranes that surrounds the lungs, the pericardium which surrounds the heart, and some of the layers within the blood-brain barrier.