Regulatory T cell

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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are anti-inflammatory. They produce the anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10. They suppress effector Th1, Th2, and Th17.

Dietary and environmental factors[edit | edit source]

Vitamin D improves regulatory T cell function in healthy adults[1] and in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS),[2] suggesting that it may play a role in both preventing and ameliorating autoimmune disease.

Various species of probiotics have been shown to increase FoxP3 expression in animal models.[3]

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

An Australian group found that Tregs were elevated in thirty individuals with Fukuda for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).[4] The same group found elevated Tregs in a multiple sclerosis comparison study.[5]

However, a study that used the Revised Canadian Consensus Criteria (2010) criteria found Tregs were depleted in 76 people with ME/CFS.[6]

A second study in Japan also found decreased Tregs in 41 people who met both the Canadian Consensus Criteria and the International Consensus Criteria as compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls.[7]

It is worth noting that such seemingly contradictory results are often found in the systemic autoimmune diseases in which T cell subsets are often studied. Even in illnesses with well-established biomarkers, age, gender, and time since onset lead to significant variability.[8]

Notable studies[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Bock, Gerlies; Prietl, Barbara; Mader, Julia K.; Höller, Evelyne; Wolf, Michael; Pilz, Stefan; Graninger, Winfried B.; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara M.; Pieber, Thomas R. (November 2011). "The effect of vitamin D supplementation on peripheral regulatory T cells and β cell function in healthy humans: a randomized controlled trial". Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 27 (8): 942–945. doi:10.1002/dmrr.1276. ISSN 1520-7560. PMID 22069289.
  2. Hupperts, Raymond; Damoiseaux, Jan; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Menheere, Paul; Peelen, Evelyn; Thewissen, Mariëlle; Smolders, Joost (August 13, 2009). "Vitamin D Status Is Positively Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Function in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis". PLOS ONE. 4 (8): e6635. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006635. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 2721656. PMID 19675671.
  3. Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Teimer, Roman; Bockermann, Robert (November 16, 2011). "Influence of Dietary Components on Regulatory T Cells". Molecular Medicine. 18 (1): 95–110. doi:10.2119/molmed.2011.00311. ISSN 1076-1551. PMC 3276397. PMID 22113499.
  4. Brenu, Ekua Weba; Huth, Teilah K.; Hardcastle, Sharni L.; Fuller, Kirsty; Kaur, Manprit; Johnston, Samantha; Ramos, Sandra B.; Staines, Don R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M. (April 2014). "Role of adaptive and innate immune cells in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis". International Immunology. 26 (4): 233–242. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxt068. ISSN 1460-2377. PMID 24343819.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ramos, S; Brenu, E; Broadley, S; Kwiatek, R; Ng, J; Nguyen, T; Freeman, S; Staines, D; Marshall-Gradisnik, S (March 20, 2016), "Regulatory T, natural killer T and γδ T cells in multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a comparison" (PDF), Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2016 (34): 300-305, doi:10.12932/AP0733
  6. Rivas, Jose Luis; Palencia, Teresa; Fernández, Guerau; García, Milagros (May 9, 2018). "Association of T and NK Cell Phenotype With the Diagnosis of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)". Frontiers in Immunology. 9. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01028. ISSN 1664-3224. PMC 5954087. PMID 29867995.
  7. Yamamura, T.; Sato, W.; Ono, H. (October 15, 2017). "Dysregulation of T and B cells in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 381: 899–900. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2017.08.2533. ISSN 0022-510X.
  8. Kasper, Isaac R.; Apostolidis, Sokratis A.; Sharabi, Amir; Tsokos, George C. (September 2016). "Empowering Regulatory T Cells in Autoimmunity". Trends in molecular medicine. 22 (9): 784–797. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2016.07.003. ISSN 1471-4914. PMC 5003773. PMID 27461103.