Fukuda criteria

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The Fukuda criteria (or CDC 1994 criteria) are criteria for the diagnosing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), published in 1994. It has been widely used in research.[1]

Authors[edit | edit source]

Keiji Fukuda; Stephen Straus; Ian Hickie; Michael Sharpe; James Dobbins; Anthony Komaroff, plus the International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group:

Ann Schluederberg, James F. Jones, Andrew R. Lloyd, Simon Wessely, Nelson M. Gantz, Gary P. Holmes, Dedra Buchwald, Susan Abbey, Jonathan Rest, Jay A. Levy (FDA), Heidi Jolson (Incline Village, Nevada), Daniel L. Petereson, Jan H.M.M. Vercoulen, Umberto Tirelli, Birgitta Evengard, Benjamin H. Natelson, (CDC); Lea Steele (CDC), Michele Reyes (CDC), and William C. Reeves (CDC).

CDC Fukuda definition of CFS[edit | edit source]

Primary symptoms

Clinically evaluated, unexplained, persistent or relapsing chronic fatigue that is:

Additional symptoms

The concurrent occurrence of four or more of the following symptoms:

These symptoms must have persisted or reoccurred during 6 or more consecutive months of illness and must not have stated before the fatigue.[1]

Final requirement

All other known causes of chronic fatigue must have been ruled out, specifically clinical depression, side effects of medication, eating disorders and substance abuse.

Criticisms[edit | edit source]

  • Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is not mandatory. (Most US researchers use PEM option.)
  • Doctors and researchers not using PEM option have misdiagnosed chronic fatigue (CF) patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
  • In research, if PEM option is not used the study is not considered by patients and many researchers to be a true CFS study; it is considered to be a (CF) study. Or both CFS and CF patients are in a CFS study as some patients have PEM and other patients do not making the study severely flawed and useless to either CFS or CF research.
  • It is not easy to use on a clinical level as it was created for research. It can take several specialists and years to diagnose a patient.
  • Dual diagnosis is not always possible and this is not useful in a clinical setting. (i.e., AIDS + CFS or MS + CFS.)
  • Leads to confusion over chronic fatigue (a symptom of many illness, depression, diseases, medications) and chronic fatigue syndrome (a grossly misnamed disease.)[2]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]