Michael Sharpe

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history
Jump to: navigation, search
Michael-sharpe.jpg

Michael Sharpe, M.A., M.R.C.P., M.R.C.Psych. is a British professor of psychological medicine at St Cross College, Oxford University and formerly at the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.[1] His research focuses on the integration of physical and mental healthcare.[2]

Sharpe is first author of the British case definition of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - often called the Oxford criteria[3] - and co-author of the 1994 Fukuda criteria[4] which has been widely used in research.[5] Sharpe also helped develop the cognitive behavioral model for CFS[6] and medically unexplained symptoms.[7]

As one of the principal investigators of the controversial PACE trial[8], Sharpe was criticized for misrepresenting the study’s findings in favor of cognitive behavioral therapy and graded exercise therapy.[9][10][11]

Biography

Michael Sharpe studied experimental psychology at Corpus Christi College Oxford and medicine at Corpus Christi College Cambridge.[1] He was trained in psychiatry at Oxford and became Clinical Tutor in the University Department. From 1997 to 2011 Sharpe was a professor of psychological medicine at the University of Edinburgh. He took up his current posts in Oxford in September 2011.[1]

Currently, Sharpe is a Fellow of Saint Cross College, Oxford and Honorary Professor at the University of Edinburgh.[12] He is an Honorary Consultant in Psychological Medicine and Trust Lead in Psychological Medicine at Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and advisor to Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust.[12] Sharpe is also President-Elect of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry and Vice-President of the European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine.[12]

Sharpe was awarded 'Psychiatric Academic of the Year' in 2009[13] and 'Psychiatrist of the Year' in 2014[14] by the Royal College of Psychiatrists. His work in the field of chronic fatigue syndrome, however, has been the subject of controversy[15][16] and criticism.[9][17][18][19]

Sharpe's ambition is to “to see psychiatry regarded as an “ordinary but useful” component in the care of medically ill people.”[20]

Research on CFS

Author of CFS case definitions  

Oxford criteria

Sharpe is first author of the British case definition of CFS, often called the Oxford criteria.[3] The Oxford criteria have been used in a number of influential British studies, including the PACE trial[21] and Deale, Chalder and Wessely (1995), the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) study given the highest evidence rating in the York Review of evidence used to justify the recommendation of CBT in the UK's NICE guidelines used by the NHS.

The Oxford criteria is considered a broad definition[22] and have been criticized for including patients with fatigue and symptoms that may not be due to CFS, and for not including neurological symptoms[23]:1 Nacul et al. 2017 found that only 1 in 15 who met the Oxford criteria also met the Canadian Consensus Criteria for ME/CFS.[24] A 2016 report by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) wrote that:
“the Oxford (Sharpe, 1991) case definition is the least specific of the definitions and less generalizable to the broader population of patients with ME/CFS. It could identify individuals who have had 6 months of unexplained fatigue with physical and mental impairment, but no other specific features of ME/CFS such as post-exertional malaise which is considered by many to be a hallmark symptom of the disease. As a result, using the Oxford case definition results in a high risk of including patients who may have an alternate fatiguing illness or whose illness resolves spontaneously with time.”[25]
A report issued by a working group on ME/CFS at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) emphasized that “continuing to use the Oxford definition may impair progress and cause harm. Therefore, for progress to occur, we recommend that this definition be retired.”[26]

Fukuda criteria

Sharpe is also a co-author of the 1994 CFS case definition issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often called the Fukuda criteria.[4] This is the case definition that has been the most frequently used in CFS research.[5][4]

A cognitive theory of CFS

In the 1990s Sharpe helped develop the cognitive behavioral model (CBM) of CFS.[27][6][28] This model suggests that “it is not a particular biological process, but rather specific psychological and behavioural mechanisms that are the common factors determining the clinical characteristics of the syndrome.”[6] According to the CBM, CFS patients have become trapped in a vicious, self-perpetuating cycle of excessive rest, symptom focusing and demoralization due to the attribution of symptoms to an incurable neurological disease..[27][6][28] In a newspaper article on CFS patients, Sharpe commented that “It’s wrong to say people don’t want to get better, but they get locked into a pattern and their life constricts around what they can do. If you live within your limits that becomes a selffulfilling prophesy.”[29]

Sharpe has contributed to the CBM by including psychosocial factors that predispose persons to develop CFS, such as perfectionism, a pre-morbid personality characterized by a marked achievement orientation and a family history where emotional distress was seen as a sign of weakness.[6] According to Sharpe and colleagues these precipitating factors may be “the result of an upbringing in which recognition, acceptance and affection were contingent on meeting high standards and parental expectations, and where the admission of difficulty or the expression of negative emotion produced an unsympathetic response.”[6]

The CBM for CFS has been criticized for a lack of empirical support[30][31] and relying on unproven assumptions.[32][33][34] A 2019 review concluded that “the model lacks high-quality evidential support, conflicts with accounts given by most patients and fails to account for accumulating biological evidence of pathological and physiological abnormalities found in patients.”[32]

Proposed similarities between CFS and psychiatric disorders

Sharpe has studied prognosis[35], illness beliefs[36], sleep patterns[37] and fluctuations in perceived energy[38] in patients with CFS. He has argued that CFS resembles a psychiatric or emotional disorder, claiming that "all patients labeled as having CFS can be given a psychiatric diagnosis if one wanted to pursue this approach to its logical conclusion."[39] According to Sharpe, “CFS and psychiatric disorder are alternative diagnoses of the same symptoms.”[40] He considers it likely that “many or all of the symptoms of CFS can be explained on the basis of emotional disorder and associated pathophysiological processes.”[6] These views are not shared by most experts in the field.[41] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state that “ME/CFS is a biological illness, not a psychologic disorder.”[42]

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

Sharpe and colleagues helped develop cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for patients with CFS.[27][6][28] CBT challenges unhelpful illness beliefs and encourages patients to gradually increase their level of (physical) activity.[27][28] According to Sharpe, “the aim is to help patients to change their understanding of their illness from an uncontrollable externally caused medical condition with frightening symptoms, to a controllable reversible physiological disorder with symptoms that may be annoying but not dangerous.”[43]

In 1996 Sharpe and colleagues published a randomized trial of CBT and medical care compared to medical care alone.[44] CFS patients in the CBT group reported more improvements but the difference occurred mostly during the follow-up period.[44] The trial has been criticized for not including a credible control condition. Consultant neurologist, Jim Pearce for example commented in BMJ: "Sharpe and colleagues did not compare cognitive therapy with other treatments or placebo, and the improvements (including persistence after the treatment had ended) are compatible with a placebo effect.”[45]

The PACE trial

Sharpe was also one of three principal investigators of the PACE trial, and a member of the PACE Trial Steering Committee and PACE Trial Management Group.[46] The PACE trial was a controversial clinical trial that compared CBT, graded exercise therapy (GET), and adaptive pacing therapy (APT) with specialist medical care in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.[8] The reported findings indicated that CBT and GET were moderately effective treatments for CFS, but the trial design was criticized for using the broad Oxford criteria (developed by Sharpe et al.), and the authors have been criticized for misrepresenting the trials’ results,[10][11] and even for "investigator bias".[47]

The PACE authors deviated from the methods specified in their protocol, without explaining these changes in full in their publications, or how the changes impacted the reported findings.[9][10][11] Following inconsistencies in the economic analysis of the PACE trial, health psychologist James Coyne filed a request to the journal PLOS ONE to access the data of the trial, a request that was dismissed as vexatious by Kings College London.[48] PLOS ONE has since issued an expression of concern about the publications in question.[49]

The PACE authors also refused to share the trial's data for independent reanalysis due to concerns that included “patients might be personally identified by releasing their data.”[50] During a 2015 first tribunal hearing on the release of the PACE trial data, Professor Ross Anderson defended the PACE authors’ decision by making “wild speculations” about “young men, borderline sociopathic or psychopathic” being attached to criticism of the PACE trial.[51] The tribunal considered these claims to be unfounded. It rejected the appeal by the PACE investigators and ordered the release of some of the anonymized data of the trial.[51] An independent reanalysis showed that the PACE authors had inflated improvement and recovery rates threefold.[52][9] Sharpe and colleagues responded that they preferred their revised version of recovery over the one specified in the protocol, as it gives “absolute rates more consistent both with the literature and with our clinical experience.”[53] An open letter to the Lancet signed by over 100 prominent ME/CFS experts, including researchers, clinicians, and MPs has called for “an independent re-analysis of the individual-level trial data, with appropriate sensitivity analyses.”[54]

The University of Oxford however has defended Sharp and colleagues. It “considers Professor Sharpe and his colleagues to be highly reputable scientists whose sole aim has been to improve quality of life for patients with ME/CFS. While scientific research should always be open to challenge and debate, this does not justify the unwarranted attacks on professionalism and personal integrity which the PACE trial team have been subjected to.”[55]

Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS)

One functional somatic syndrome

In an influential 1999 article in the Lancet, Sharpe, Wessely and Nimnuan claimed that syndromes such as CFS constitute an “artefact of medical specialisation.”[56] They argued that there’s a large population of patients with multiple medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUS or MUPS) and that it’s mostly the specialist they see that determines their diagnosis. When seen in gastroenterology patients might be diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome, in rheumatology with fibromyalgia, in cardiology with atypical chest pain, in neurology with tension headache and in an infectious diseases clinic with chronic (postviral) fatigue syndrome.[56] According to Sharpe and colleagues, there is a large overlap between these conditions and they should, therefore, be viewed together as one functional somatic syndrome.[56]

The prevalence of MUS

Sharpe’s research has estimated the prevalence of MUS in neurology[57][58] and rheumatology clinics[59] at approximately 30%. He reported that MUS patients tend to have more symptoms than patients with a medically explained condition but that symptom count does not adequately discriminate between the two groups.[60]

In collaboration with Chris Burton, Sharpe has studied MUS patients in primary who have been repeatedly (5 times or more in a 5 year period) referred to specialist clinics. Their research indicated this to be a rather small group (0.3% of total patients)[61] but one with a high rate of disability where psychological problems such as depression are undertreated.[62] Sharpe and Burton suggest developing “clinical information systems to remind practitioners that the patient has already had repeated referrals.”[63] They propose a primary care clinic specialized in managing unexplained somatic symptoms with a “holistic” approach that targets symptom-maintaining factors with medication or cognitive behavioral techniques.[64]

Cognitive behavioral model of MUS

In collaboration with Vincent Deary and Trudie Chalder, Sharpe has developed a cognitive behavioral model of medically unexplained symptoms.[7] The model assumes that if persons interpret benign bodily sensations as an indication of disease, they can become locked in an autopoietic cycle characterized by "distress sensitisation"; a reduced threshold for the detection of symptoms.[7] Lack of an explanation is believed to increases anxiety and symptom focus while avoidance of symptoms and symptom-led activity patterns are proposed to lead to further sensitisation through operant conditioning.[7] Sharpe has worked with the Danish team of Per Fink to conduct a randomized trial of CBT for patients with ‘multi-organ bodily distress syndrome’.[65]

Functional somatic disorder

According to Sharpe and colleagues, MUS is not an acceptable term to patients and doctors: “It defines the patient's symptoms by what they are not, rather than by what they are, and it reflects dualistic thinking – regarding symptoms as either 'organic' or 'non-organic'/'psychological'.”[66] They suggest that ‘functional somatic disorder’ might be a more suitable alternative as it indicates that symptoms are real but changeable by alteration in thinking and behaviour as well as by a psychotropic drugs.[66]

Other research

Hysteria, conversion disorder and functional neurological disorder

In collaboration with neurologist Jon Stone, Sharpe has studied patients with motor and sensory symptoms—such as paralysis, seizures, and blindness—that are unexplained by disease.[67][68] According to Sharpe and Stone, these patients are common in neurological practice[69] and are frequently diagnosed with conversion disorder and in earlier times, hysteria.[69] In a systematic review, they reported that misdiagnosis of conversion disorder and hysteria is uncommon with an average of 4% in studies since the 1970s.[69] According to Sharpe and Stone this indicates that Eliot Slater's influential view that a diagnosis of hysteria is a "disguise for ignorance and a fertile source of clinical error” is a myth and not supported by evidence.[70] They argue that it “was not hysteria that disappeared, but rather medical interest in hysteria.”[71] Sharpe and Stone have proposed to change the name of conversion disorder into functional neurological disorder “as it is relatively acceptable to patients and is the main term used in other medical specialties to refer to this type of symptom.”[72]

Somatic symptom disorder (SSD)

In collaboration with Richard Mayou, Sharpe wrote a critique of the somatization disorder diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-4).[73] They argued it should be abolished[73] as it is considered unactable by patients and the psychogenic theory behind it is poorly supported by evidence. As an alternative, they proposed that disorders defined solely by somatic symptoms could more appropriately be classified as functional somatic symptoms and syndromes.[73] Sharpe subsequently became a member of the Somatic Symptom Disorder Work Group for the DSM–5.[74] This resulted in a new category of somatic symptom disorder (SSD), which broadens the former definition of somatization disorder and deemphasizes the centrality of medically unexplained symptoms.[75] Others have criticized the diagnosis of SSD for being too loose and overdiagnosing psychiatric illness in those medically ill.[76]

Bodily symptoms

Sharpe has argued that bodily symptoms should be considered in their own right, not just as manifestations of either bodily pathology or psychopathology.[77] According to Sharpe, there is only a weak relationship between severity of symptoms and severity of pathology[78], and some symptoms such as fatigue are poorly understood in a purely biomedical model.[78] He has argued that the lack of accepted bodily disease can result in stigma and a morally uncertain position and that this explains the opposition of CFS patients to a psychosocial explanation of their complaints[79], a hypothesis that is contested by others.[79] Sharpe and colleagues have argued that diagnosis should not be the sole basis of clinical practice and that a focus on prognosis and predictors of outcomes may be more useful.[80]

Fatigue after cancer or a stroke

Sharpe has studied fatigue in patients who had cancer or a stroke. His research indicates that approximately a third of patients have persistent fatigue following cancer[81][82] or a stroke[83]. Sharpe also conducted SMaRT oncology 1, a large randomized trial that studied the management of depression in cancer patients.[84] The results were reported in The Lancet in 2008 and indicated the intervention was effective in reducing self-reported symptoms of depression, fatigue, and anxiety.[84]

Controversy

Wessely school

Michael Sharpe has been referred to as a "member" of the Wessely school,[85][10] a group of British psychiatrists led by Simon Wessely that has been criticized for their dismissal of biomedical research into ME/CFS, promotion of the biopsychosocial model, and close ties with the UK welfare benefit system and the health insurance industry.[85][86][87]

Sharpe has done voluntary and paid consultancy work for legal and insurance companies[8][21] and for the UK's Department for Work and Pensions,[87][21] a conflict of interest disclosed in the publication of the PACE trial but not disclosed to participants in the trial.[88][89]

In 2002, Sharpe wrote a controversial article in the UNUMProvident CMO Report on functional symptoms and syndromes,[90][91] which in his view includes ME/CFS. He criticized the “ME lobby” for objecting to rehabilitative treatments and emphasizing the validity and chronicity of the illness.[90] According to Sharpe “a strong belief and preoccupation that one has a 'medical disease' and a helpless and passive attitude to coping is associated with persistent disability...”[90]

Denial of illness or disability benefits

Sharpe has also been paid by a number of health insurance companies seeking to deny or minimize disability health insurance claims or ill health retirement pensions, including Unum and has repeatedly claimed that ME/CFS patients are more likely to improve when they don't have access to disability benefits.[92][85][86][93] In Sharpe's 2002 Unum article, he also claimed that the current system of state benefits, insurance payments, and litigation forms a potentially major obstacle to recovery. Sharpe argued that “benefits and medical services need to be more rehabilitation orientated.”[90]

Malingering and illness deception conference

Michael Sharpe presented at a 2001 Malingering and Illness Deception conference[94] funded by the UK's Department for Work and Pensions on the topic of distinguishing malingering from psychiatric disorders, a topic that later became a chapter of a book published in 2003 by the same name.[95] Sharpe's chapter gives an example of the case of a woman with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (which is not a psychiatric disorder) suspected of malingering due to day to day fluctuations in illness severity.[96] Other contributors to the book include Simon WesselyPeter WhiteMansel Aylward, all of whom became members of the PACE Trial Steering Committee a few years later.[46]

The belief in ME

According to Sharpe, “the insistence that 'ME' is an exclusively physical disease, untreatable except by rest, and with a poor prognosis, may in the long run have been unhelpful for sufferers.”[27] He has also argued that extensive laboratory investigation “may be psychologically harmful to the patient by reinforcing their beliefs or concerns about serious physical disease.”[27] Sharpe has criticized doctors for “colluding with the patient's belief that their symptoms are explained by an untreatable disease (such as myalgic encephalopathy…).”[97]  In a book co-written with Simon Wessely and Matthew Hotopf, Sharpe warned that campaigning for more awareness of ME in adolescents might have increased the incidence of young people with such presentations.[98]

Denigration of critics

Freedom of information act requests

Michael Sharpe has repeatedly criticized scientists and patients who highlighted flaws in his research or used Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests to demand the release of unpublished data from his research, including the successful request for unpublished data from the PACE trial.[15][99][100] Some of the Wessely school, including Michael Sharpe, have been known to make unpleasant comments about patients in the media.[94][101][102][103][104]

“Patients would surely be to produce so many complaints”

In 2018, a tweet by Sharpe claimed that some Freedom of Information Act requests and scientific criticism could not have been made from patients since they would have been too ill to do so. He claimed that “many of the activists trying to have scientific papers they don’t like retracted are not patients. Patients would surely be too ill to produce so many complaints and FOI requests to journals, funders, and universities.”[15] Sharpe's tweet led to over 100 Australians from the ME/CFS community requesting an apology, pointing out that Alem Matthees had been bedridden for 2 years since winning the FOIA tribunal that led to the release of the PACE trial data, a decision that Sharpe had opposed. Sharpe deleted the tweet as a result of the open letter, which had been signed by Alem Matthees's family.[15]

Sharpe has also referred to patients opposing his research as "militant" ME patients, and used "activists" as a disparaging term. Blease and Geraghty (2016a, 2016b) found "epistemic injustice" and "ethical failures" in the treatment of ME patients,[105][106] and in 2018 reported they could not find any evidence of "militancy" among ME/CFS patient groups.[107]

Comparing critics to climate change deniers

Sharpe has described those who opposed his research as a co-ordinated "pressure group" who are "against science", similar to climate change deniers.[108][109]  In a lecture abstract Sharpe said that the use of “co-ordinated pressure group action against science was prominently seen in the field of climate change research but is now emerging in other areas. Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME for short) is one of these.”[110]

In 2019, Sharpe and Greco has argued that even “the well-intentioned campaigning for better recognition of CFS inadvertently reinforces the social and cultural conditions that made that recognition more difficult in the first place."[79]

Unbecoming of an MP and retraction requests

In 2018 member of parliament (MP) Carol Monaghan raised the issue of the PACE trial in British parliament. Afterward, she received an email from Michael Sharpe saying her actions were "unbecoming of an MP."[111] Monaghan responded in parliament by stating: “if listening to my constituents, investigating their concerns and taking action as a result is ‘unbecoming’, I stand guilty.”[111]

When in 2019 the Health Research Authority’s report on the PACE trial indicated no regulatory concerns[112], Sharpe sent e-mails to at least two US publications requesting a retraction or major correction of articles critical of the PACE-trial. Sharpe’s e-mails accused the writers of the articles of suggesting that PACE was “fraudulent.”[16]

In 2018 journalist Amy Maxmen wrote an article for Nature about ME/CFS which included recent criticism on the efficacy of psychosocial interventions.[113] Sharpe and colleagues responded with a letter in which they argued that “there is no place for stigmatizing any avenue of research or therapy that might help us to improve the lives of people with this long-term debilitating illness.”[114]

Regarding the revision of the Cochrane review on graded exercise therapy, Sharpe has claimed that the Cochrane editor “wilted badly… under direct pressure from activists”[101], despite email correspondence indicating this to be untrue.[115] The Cochrane editor in question, David Tovey, had explicitly stated that “this [sic] not about patient pressure.”[102]

Retirement from CFS research

In March 2019, Reuters journalist Kate Kelland published an interview with Professor Michael Sharpe in which he claimed to have given up research in ME/CFS due to abuse and harassment from ME activists.[103] However, the article was published less than a week after the publication of Sharpe et al.'s response to the PACE trial re-analysis by Wilshire et al.[52]

Controversies

Books

Notable studies

  • 1994, The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group[4](Abstract) - known as the Fukuda criteria
  • 1997, Chronic fatigue syndrome. A practical guide to assessment and management[116](Full Text)
  • 1998, Doctors' diagnoses and patients' perceptions. Lessons from chronic fatigue syndrome[92](Abstract)
  • 2002, The report of the Chief Medical Officer's CFS/ME working group: what does it say and will it help?[117](Full Text)

PACE trial publications

  • 2007, Protocol for the PACE Trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy[46]
Main trial outcome
Other PACE trial publications

Publications unrelated to the PACE trial:

  • 2017, Long-term economic evaluation of cognitive-behavioural group treatment versus enhanced usual care for functional somatic syndromes[126](Abstract)
  • 2019,  Chronic fatigue syndrome and an illness-focused approach to care: controversy, morality and paradox[79] - (Full text)
Other publications
  • 2006, Occupational Aspects of the Management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A National Guideline[87](Full text) External Assessors: Professor Michael Sharpe and Professor Peter White.

Letters

PACE trial authors' responses
  • 2017, Response to: "Do more people recover from chronic fatigue syndrome with cognitive behaviour therapy or graded exercise therapy than with other treatments?"[130](Abstract)
  • 2019, The PACE trial of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome: a response to WILSHIRE et al[131](Full text)

Media coverage and interviews

Online presence

See also

Learn more

References

  1. 1.01.11.2 "Professor Michael Sharpe". St Cross College. Aug 6, 2012. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  2. Sharpe, Michael; Naylor, Chris (Apr 2016). "Integration of mental and physical health care: from aspiration to practice". The Lancet. Psychiatry. 3 (4): 312–313. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00062-6. ISSN 2215-0374. PMID 26965021. 
  3. 3.03.1 Sharpe, M. C.; Archard, L. C.; Banatvala, J. E.; Borysiewicz, L. K.; Clare, A. W.; David, A.; Edwards, R. H.; Hawton, K. E.; Lambert, H. P. (Feb 1991). "A report--chronic fatigue syndrome: guidelines for research". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 84 (2): 118–121. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 1293107Freely accessible. PMID 1999813. 
  4. 4.04.14.24.3 Fukuda, K.; Straus, S. E.; Hickie, I.; Sharpe, M. C.; Dobbins, J. G.; Komaroff, A. (Dec 15, 1994). "The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group". Annals of Internal Medicine. 121 (12): 953–959. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-121-12-199412150-00009. ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 7978722. 
  5. 5.05.1 Malterud, Kirsti; Flottorp, Signe; Larun, Lillebeth; Fønhus, Marita Sporstøl; Brurberg, Kjetil Gundro (Feb 1, 2014). "Case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): a systematic review". BMJ Open. 4 (2): e003973. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003973. ISSN 2044-6055. PMID 24508851. 
  6. 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.7 Surawy, C.; Hackmann, A.; Hawton, K.; Sharpe, M. (Jun 1995). "Chronic fatigue syndrome: a cognitive approach". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 33 (5): 535–544. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00077-w. ISSN 0005-7967. PMID 7598674. 
  7. 7.07.17.27.3 Deary, V.; Chalder, T.; Sharpe, M. (Oct 2007). "The cognitive behavioural model of medically unexplained symptoms: a theoretical and empirical review". Clinical Psychology Review. 27 (7): 781–797. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2007.07.002. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 17822818. 
  8. 8.08.18.2 Sharpe, M.; Chalder, T.; McCrone, P.; Wilks, D.; O'Dowd, H.; Murphy, M.; Murphy, G.; Angus, B. J.; Bavinton, J. (Mar 5, 2011). "Comparison of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise therapy, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): a randomised trial". The Lancet. 377 (9768): 823–836. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60096-2. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 21334061. 
  9. 9.09.19.29.3 Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Kindlon, Tom (Mar 26, 2019). "Response: Sharpe, Goldsmith and Chalder fail to restore confidence in the PACE trial findings". BMC psychology. 7 (1): 19. doi:10.1186/s40359-019-0296-x. ISSN 2050-7283. PMC 6434781Freely accessible. PMID 30914065. 
  10. 10.010.110.210.3 "TRIAL BY ERROR: The Troubling Case of the PACE Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study". www.virology.ws. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  11. 11.011.111.2 Geraghty, Keith J. (Aug 2017). "'PACE-Gate': When clinical trial evidence meets open data access". Journal of Health Psychology. 22 (9): 1106–1112. doi:10.1177/1359105316675213. ISSN 1461-7277. PMID 27807258. 
  12. 12.012.112.2 "Michael Sharpe — Department of Psychiatry". www.psych.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  13. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Annual review 2009.
  14. "Professor Michael Sharpe is named as Psychiatrist of the Year — Department of Psychiatry". www.psych.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  15. 15.015.115.215.3 "Trial By Error: An Australian Exchange with Professor Sharpe". www.virology.ws. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  16. 16.016.1 "Trial By Error: Professor Sharpe's Retraction Requests". www.virology.ws. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  17. Lucibees blog. Sharpe’s briefing on the (“so-called”) PACE trial for the 21 June 2018 Westminster Hall debate. 02-07-2018.
  18. "Michael Sharpe". spoonseekerdotcom. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  19. "Trial By Error: Professor Michael Sharpe's Gaffe on Australian Radio". www.virology.ws. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  20. 20.020.1 Group, British Medical Journal Publishing (Aug 10, 2016). "Michael Sharpe: Psychiatry was no "waste of a career"". BMJ. 354: i4231. doi:10.1136/bmj.i4231. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 27510631. 
  21. 21.021.121.221.3 White, PD; Goldsmith, KA; Johnson, AL; Potts, L; Walwyn, R; DeCesare, JC; Baber, HL; Burgess, M; Clark, LV; Cox, DL; Bavinton, J; Angus, BJ; Murphy, G; Murphy, M; O'Dowd, H; Wilks, D; McCrone, P; Chalder, T; Sharpe, M; The PACE Trial Management Group (Mar 5, 2011). "Comparison of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise therapy, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): a randomised trial". The Lancet. 377 (9768): 823–836. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60096-2. PMID 21334061. 
  22. White, P. D.; Thomas, J. M.; Amess, J.; Crawford, D. H.; Grover, S. A.; Kangro, H. O.; Clare, A. W. (Dec 1998). "Incidence, risk and prognosis of acute and chronic fatigue syndromes and psychiatric disorders after glandular fever". The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science. 173: 475–481. doi:10.1192/bjp.173.6.475. ISSN 0007-1250. PMID 9926075. 
  23. Marshall, Eileen; Williams, Margaret (Feb 23, 2005). "Problems and Solutions?" (PDF). margaretwilliams.me. 
  24. Nacul, Luis; Lacerda, Eliana M; Kingdon, Caroline C; Curran, Hayley; Bowman, Erinna W (Mar 1, 2017). "How have selection bias and disease misclassification undermined the validity of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome studies?". Journal of Health Psychology: 1359105317695803. doi:10.1177/1359105317695803. ISSN 1359-1053. PMC 5581258Freely accessible. PMID 28810428. 
  25. McDonagh, Marian; Wasson, Ngoc; Daeges, Monica; Pappas, Miranda; Haney, Elizabeth; Nelson, Heidi D.; Smith, M. E. Beth (Dec 2014). July 2016 Addendum. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). 
  26. Green, Carmen R.; Cowan, Penney; Elk, Ronit; O'Neil, Kathleen M.; Rasmussen, Angela L. (Jun 16, 2015). "National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (12): 860–865. doi:10.7326/M15-0338. ISSN 1539-3704. PMID 26075757. 
  27. 27.027.127.227.327.427.5 Sharpe, M. (Oct 1991). "Psychiatric management of PVFS". British Medical Bulletin. 47 (4): 989–1005. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a072525. ISSN 0007-1420. PMID 1794095. 
  28. 28.028.128.228.3 Sharpe, M. (1993). "Non-pharmacological approaches to treatment". Ciba Foundation Symposium. 173: 298–308; discussion 308–317. doi:10.1002/9780470514382.ch17. ISSN 0300-5208. PMID 8491104. 
  29. "Positive Thinking And Exercise Could Help Beat Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Study Suggests". uk.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  30. Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A. (Jun 1, 2005). "A population-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) experienced in differing patient groups: An effort to replicate Vercoulen et al.'s model of CFS". Journal of Mental Health. 14 (3): 277–289. doi:10.1080/09638230500076165. ISSN 0963-8237. 
  31. Sunnquist, Madison; Jason, Leonard A. (Jul 2018). "A reexamination of the cognitive behavioral model of chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 74 (7): 1234–1245. doi:10.1002/jclp.22593. ISSN 1097-4679. PMC 6002889Freely accessible. PMID 29457646. 
  32. 32.032.1 Geraghty, Keith; Jason, Leonard; Sunnquist, Madison; Tuller, David; Blease, Charlotte; Adeniji, Charles (Jan 2019). "The 'cognitive behavioural model' of chronic fatigue syndrome: Critique of a flawed model". Health Psychology Open. 6 (1): 205510291983890. doi:10.1177/2055102919838907. ISSN 2055-1029. PMC 6482658Freely accessible. PMID 31041108. 
  33. Courtney, Robert (Sep 6, 2019). "The cognitive-behavioural model of illness for chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis is not supported by the outcomes of the PACE trial". The BMJ. 
  34. Friedberg, Fred (Jul 2, 2016). "Cognitive-behavior therapy: why is it so vilified in the chronic fatigue syndrome community?". Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior. 4 (3): 127–131. doi:10.1080/21641846.2016.1200884. ISSN 2164-1846. 
  35. Sharpe, M.; Hawton, K.; Seagroatt, V.; Pasvol, G. (Jul 18, 1992). "Follow up of patients presenting with fatigue to an infectious diseases clinic". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 305 (6846): 147–152. doi:10.1136/bmj.305.6846.147. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1883193Freely accessible. PMID 1515828. 
  36. Clements, A.; Sharpe, M.; Simkin, S.; Borrill, J.; Hawton, K. (Jun 1997). "Chronic fatigue syndrome: a qualitative investigation of patients' beliefs about the illness". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 42 (6): 615–624. doi:10.1016/s0022-3999(97)00087-1. ISSN 0022-3999. PMID 9226609. 
  37. Sharpley, Ann; Clements, Alison; Hawton, Keith; Sharpe, Michael (Nov 1997). "Do Patients With "Pure" Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Neurasthenia) Have Abnormal Sleep?". Psychosomatic Medicine. 59 (6): 592. ISSN 0033-3174. 
  38. Wood, C.; Magnello, M. E.; Sharpe, M. C. (Apr 1992). "Fluctuations in perceived energy and mood among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 85 (4): 195–198. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 1294721Freely accessible. PMID 1290537. 
  39. Sharpe, M. (Sep 1996). "Chronic fatigue syndrome". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 19 (3): 549–573. ISSN 0193-953X. PMID 8856816. 
  40. Sharpe, Michael (Jun 1, 2005). "Psychiatric diagnosis and chronic fatigue syndrome: Controversies and conflicts". Journal of Mental Health. 14 (3): 269–276. doi:10.1080/09638230500136621. ISSN 0963-8237. 
  41. Komaroff, Anthony L. (Jul 5, 2019). "Advances in Understanding the Pathophysiology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.8312. ISSN 1538-3598. PMID 31276153. 
  42. "Etiology and Pathophysiology | Presentation and Clinical Course | Healthcare Providers | Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Jul 23, 2019. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  43. Sharpe, Michael (2005). "Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 303–330. doi:10.1002/0470013389.ch16. ISBN 9780470013380. 
  44. 44.044.1 Sharpe, M.; Hawton, K.; Simkin, S.; Surawy, C.; Hackmann, A.; Klimes, I.; Peto, T.; Warrell, D.; Seagroatt, V. (Jan 6, 1996). "Cognitive behaviour therapy for the chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial". BMJ : British Medical Journal. 312 (7022): 22–26. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 2349693Freely accessible. PMID 8555852. 
  45. Pearce, J. (Apr 27, 1996). "Cognitive behaviour therapy for the chronic fatigue syndrome. Cognitive behavior therapy should be compared with placebo treatments". BMJ : British Medical Journal. 312 (7038): 1097–1098. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 2350872Freely accessible. PMID 8616427. 
  46. 46.046.146.2 White, PD; Sharpe, MC; Chalder, T; DeCesare, JC; Walwyn, R; The PACE trial group (Mar 8, 2007). "Protocol for the PACE Trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy". BMC Neurology. doi:10.1186/1471-2377-7-6. PMID 17397525. 
  47. Lubet, Steven (Aug 2017). "Investigator bias and the PACE trial". Journal of Health Psychology. 22 (9): 1123–1127. doi:10.1177/1359105317697324. ISSN 1359-1053. 
  48. Coyne, James (Mar 14, 2016). "PACE F325-15 - Prof. James Coyne Response" (PDF). web.archive.org. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  49. White, Peter D.; Goldsmith, Kimberley A.; Johnson, Anthony L.; Knapp, Martin; Chalder, Trudie; Sharpe, Michael; McCrone, Paul (Aug 1, 2012). "Adaptive Pacing, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Graded Exercise, and Specialist Medical Care for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis". PLOS ONE. 7 (8): e40808. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040808. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3411573Freely accessible. PMID 22870204. 
  50. White, Peter D; Chalder, Trudie; Sharpe, Michael; Angus, Brian J; Baber, Hannah L; Bavinton, Jessica; Burgess, Mary; Clark, Lucy V; Cox, Diane L (Jan 24, 2017). "Response to the editorial by Dr Geraghty". Journal of Health Psychology. 22 (9): 1113–1117. doi:10.1177/1359105316688953. ISSN 1359-1053. 
  51. 51.051.1 "Tribunal orders release of PACE data". #MEAction. Aug 16, 2016. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  52. 52.052.1 Wilshire, C; Kindlon, T; Matthees, A; McGrath, S (2017), "Can patients with chronic fatigue syndrome really recover after graded exercise or cognitive behavioural therapy? A critical commentary and preliminary re-analysis of the PACE trial", Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior, 5 (1): 43-56, doi:10.1080/21641846.2017.1259724 
  53. T, Chalder; K, Goldsmith; M, Sharpe (Mar 12, 2019). "The PACE trial of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome: a response to WILSHIRE et al". BMC Psychol. 7: 15. 
  54. "Trial By Error: Open Letter to The Lancet, version 3.0". www.virology.ws. Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  55. "expert reaction to Journal of Health Psychology's Special Issue on The PACE Trial | Science Media Centre". Retrieved Sep 10, 2019. 
  56. 56.056.156.2 Wessely, S.; Nimnuan, C.; Sharpe, M. (Sep 11, 1999). "Functional somatic syndromes: one or many?". Lancet (London, England). 354 (9182): 936–939. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)08320-2. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 10489969. 
  57. Carson, A. J.; Ringbauer, B.; Stone, J.; McKenzie, L.; Warlow, C.; Sharpe, M. (Feb 2000). "Do medically unexplained symptoms matter? A prospective cohort study of 300 new referrals to neurology outpatient clinics". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 68 (2): 207–210. doi:10.1136/jnnp.68.2.207. ISSN 0022-3050. PMC 1736779Freely accessible. PMID 10644789. 
  58. Sharpe, M.; MacMahon, A. D.; Walker, J.; Smyth, R.; Goldbeck, R.; Matthews, K.; Cavanagh, J.; Pelosi, A.; Cull, R. (Oct 1, 2009). "Symptoms 'unexplained by organic disease' in 1144 new neurology out-patients: how often does the diagnosis change at follow-up?". Brain. 132 (10): 2878–2888. doi:10.1093/brain/awp220. ISSN 0006-8950. 
  59. Maiden, N. L.; Hurst, N. P.; Lochhead, A.; Carson, A. J.; Sharpe, M. (Jan 2003). "Medically unexplained symptoms in patients referred to a specialist rheumatology service: prevalence and associations". Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 42 (1): 108–112. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keg043. ISSN 1462-0324. PMID 12509622. 
  60. Carson, Alan J.; Stone, Jon; Hansen, Christian Holm; Duncan, Rod; Cavanagh, Jonathon; Matthews, Keith; Murray, G.; Sharpe, Michael (Mar 2015). "Somatic symptom count scores do not identify patients with symptoms unexplained by disease: a prospective cohort study of neurology outpatients". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 86 (3): 295–301. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2014-308234. ISSN 1468-330X. PMID 24935983. 
  61. Smith, Benjamin J.; McGorm, Kelly J.; Weller, David; Burton, Christopher; Sharpe, Michael (Sep 2009). "The identification in primary care of patients who have been repeatedly referred to hospital for medically unexplained symptoms: A pilot study". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 67 (3): 207–211. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.01.004. 
  62. Sharpe, Michael; Burton, Christopher; Sawhney, Aarti; McGorm, Kelly; Weller, David (Jun 2012). "Is co-morbid depression adequately treated in patients repeatedly referred to specialist medical services with symptoms of a medical condition?". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 72 (6): 419–421. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.03.005. ISSN 0022-3999. 
  63. Burton, Christopher; McGorm, Kelly; Richardson, Gerry; Weller, David; Sharpe, Michael (Mar 2012). "Healthcare costs incurred by patients repeatedly referred to secondary medical care with medically unexplained symptoms: a cost of illness study". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 72 (3): 242–247. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.12.009. ISSN 1879-1360. PMID 22325706. 
  64. Sharpe, Michael; Worth, Allison; Marsden, Wendy; Weller, David; Burton, Christopher (Jan 1, 2012). "A primary care Symptoms Clinic for patients with medically unexplained symptoms: pilot randomised trial". BMJ Open. 2 (1): e000513. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000513. ISSN 2044-6055. PMID 22327629. 
  65. Schröder, Andreas; Rehfeld, Emma; Ornbøl, Eva; Sharpe, Michael; Licht, Rasmus W.; Fink, Per (Jun 2012). "Cognitive-behavioural group treatment for a range of functional somatic syndromes: randomised trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science. 200 (6): 499–507. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.098681. ISSN 1472-1465. PMID 22539780. 
  66. 66.066.1 Creed, Francis; Guthrie, Elspeth; Fink, Per; Henningsen, Peter; Rief, Winfried; Sharpe, Michael; White, Peter (Jan 2010). "Is there a better term than "medically unexplained symptoms"?". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 68 (1): 5–8. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.09.004. ISSN 1879-1360. PMID 20004295. 
  67. Stone, J; Carson, A; Sharpe, M (Mar 2005). "FUNCTIONAL SYMPTOMS IN NEUROLOGY: MANAGEMENT". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 76 (Suppl 1): i13–i21. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.061663. ISSN 0022-3050. PMC 1765682Freely accessible. PMID 15718216. 
  68. Stone, Jon; Sharpe, Michael (May 2006). "Functional symptoms in neurology: case studies". Neurologic Clinics. 24 (2): 385–403. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2006.01.008. ISSN 0733-8619. PMID 16684639. 
  69. 69.069.169.2 Sharpe, Michael; Warlow, Charles; Prescott, Robin; Lewis, Steff; Carson, Alan; Smyth, Roger; Stone, Jon (Oct 27, 2005). "Systematic review of misdiagnosis of conversion symptoms and "hysteria"". BMJ. 331 (7523): 989. doi:10.1136/bmj.38628.466898.55. ISSN 0959-8138. PMID 16223792. 
  70. Stone, Jon; Warlow, Charles; Carson, Alan; Sharpe, Michael (Dec 2005). "Eliot Slater's myth of the non-existence of hysteria". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 98 (12): 547–548. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 1299341Freely accessible. PMID 16319432. 
  71. Stone, Jon; Hewett, Russell; Carson, Alan; Warlow, Charles; Sharpe, Michael (Jan 2008). "The 'disappearance' of hysteria: historical mystery or illusion?". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 101 (1): 12–18. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2007.070129. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 2235919Freely accessible. PMID 18263908. 
  72. Stone, Jon; LaFrance, W. Curt; Brown, Richard; Spiegel, David; Levenson, James L.; Sharpe, Michael (Nov 2011). "Conversion Disorder: Current problems and potential solutions for DSM-5". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 71 (6): 369–376. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.07.005. ISSN 0022-3999. 
  73. 73.073.173.2 Sharpe, Michael; Mayou, Richard (Jun 2004). "Somatoform disorders: a help or hindrance to good patient care?". The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science. 184: 465–467. doi:10.1192/bjp.184.6.465. ISSN 0007-1250. PMID 15172937. 
  74. Dimsdale, Joel E.; Creed, Francis; Escobar, Javier; Sharpe, Michael; Wulsin, Lawson; Barsky, Arthur; Lee, Sing; Irwin, Michael R.; Levenson, James (Sep 2013). "Somatic symptom disorder: an important change in DSM". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 75 (3): 223–228. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.06.033. ISSN 1879-1360. PMID 23972410. 
  75. Sharpe, Michael (Nov 2013). "Somatic symptoms: beyond 'medically unexplained'". The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science. 203 (5): 320–321. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.122523. ISSN 1472-1465. PMID 24187064. 
  76. Frances, Allen; Chapman, Suzy (May 2013). "DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder mislabels medical illness as mental disorder". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 47 (5): 483–484. doi:10.1177/0004867413484525. ISSN 1440-1614. PMID 23653063. 
  77. Sharpe, Michael; Mayou, Richard; Walker, Jane (Apr 2006). "Bodily symptoms: new approaches to classification". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 60 (4): 353–356. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.01.020. ISSN 0022-3999. PMID 16581358. 
  78. 78.078.1 Sharpe, Michael (Feb 1, 2006). "Bodily symptoms: a new approach". Psychiatry. Psychological medicine 1. 5 (2): 39–42. doi:10.1383/psyt.2006.5.2.39. ISSN 1476-1793. 
  79. 79.079.179.279.3 Sharpe, Michael; Greco, Monica (Jun 1, 2019). "Chronic fatigue syndrome and an illness-focused approach to care: controversy, morality and paradox". Medical Humanities. 45 (2): 183–187. doi:10.1136/medhum-2018-011598. ISSN 1468-215X. 
  80. Croft, Peter; Altman, Douglas G.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Dunn, Kate M.; Hay, Alastair D.; Hemingway, Harry; LeResche, Linda; Peat, George; Perel, Pablo (Jan 30, 2015). "The science of clinical practice: disease diagnosis or patient prognosis? Evidence about "what is likely to happen" should shape clinical practice". BMC medicine. 13: 20. doi:10.1186/s12916-014-0265-4. ISSN 1741-7015. PMC 4311412Freely accessible. PMID 25637245. 
  81. Storey, D. J.; Waters, R. A.; Hibberd, C. J.; Rush, R. W.; Cargill, A. T.; Wall, L. R.; Fallon, M. T.; Strong, V. A.; Walker, J. (Nov 2007). "Clinically relevant fatigue in cancer outpatients: the Edinburgh Cancer Centre symptom study". Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology. 18 (11): 1861–1869. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdm349. ISSN 1569-8041. PMID 17804467. 
  82. Sharpe, M.; Smyth, J. F.; O’Dea, R.; Liggatt, S.; Butcher, I.; Atkinson, M. A.; McLaren, D. B.; Storey, D. J. (Jan 1, 2012). "Clinically relevant fatigue in recurrence-free prostate cancer survivors". Annals of Oncology. 23 (1): 65–72. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdr034. ISSN 0923-7534. 
  83. Duncan, Fiona; Greig, Carolyn; Lewis, Susan; Dennis, Martin; MacLullich, Alasdair; Sharpe, Michael; Mead, Gillian (Nov 2014). "Clinically significant fatigue after stroke: a longitudinal cohort study". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 77 (5): 368–373. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.06.013. ISSN 1879-1360. PMID 25439339. 
  84. 84.084.1 Strong, Vanessa; Waters, Rachel; Hibberd, Carina; Murray, Gordon; Wall, Lucy; Walker, Jane; McHugh, Gillian; Walker, Andrew; Sharpe, Michael (Jul 5, 2008). "Management of depression for people with cancer (SMaRT oncology 1): a randomised trial". Lancet (London, England). 372 (9632): 40–48. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60991-5. ISSN 1474-547X. PMID 18603157. 
  85. 85.085.185.2 Hooper, Malcolm (2003). "A consideration of the role of pressor Simon Wessely and other members of the "Wessely School" in the perception of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) in the UK. Background Briefing for the House of Commons Select Health Committee" (PDF). MCS-International.org. 
  86. 86.086.1 Hooper, Malcolm (Aug 2011). "Professor Hooper's Response to The Observer Newspaper Aug 2011". Invest in ME Research. 
  87. 87.087.187.2 NHS Plus Guideline Development Group (October 2006). "Occupational Aspects of the Management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A National Guideline" (PDF). 
  88. Peters, John [@johnthejack] (Apr 7, 2018). "You mean like the #PACEtrial TSC was when you made a false and misleading statement to them saying you didn't have a financial COI when you did?pic.twitter.com/Rz9og81yO4" (Tweet). Retrieved Sep 11, 2019 – via Twitter. 
  89. Peters, John [@johnthejack] (Apr 9, 2018). "The TSC statement is available here www.dropbox.com/s/fed34yniqqrvr8s/TSC%20COI%20letters%202.pdf?dl=0 … The TMG statement is included in this file www.dropbox.com/s/ejj5wnmj15f8hxa/COI%202.zip?dl=0 … Review of book from 2001 (ie confirming publication before 2004) www.bmj.com/content/322/7291/934.1 … Work for Unum documented here web.archive.org/web/20040823133526/www.unum.co.uk/downloads/CMOReport.PDF …" (Tweet). Retrieved Sep 11, 2019 – via Twitter. 
  90. 90.090.190.290.3 UNUM Provident (2002). "Trends in Health and Disability 2002". Archived from the original on Aug 30, 2006. Retrieved Sep 12, 2019. 
  91. "Trial by Error, Continued: PACE Team's Work for Insurance Companies Is "Not Related" to PACE. Really?". www.virology.ws. Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  92. 92.092.1 Sharpe, Michael (1998). "Doctors' diagnoses and patients' perceptions: Lessons from chronic fatigue syndrome". General Hospital Psychiatry. 20 (6): 335–338. doi:10.1016/S0163-8343(98)00055-3. 
  93. "Michael Sharpe". Retrieved Feb 4, 2019. “Those who cannot be fitted into a scheme of objective bodily illness yet refuse to be placed into and accept the stigma of mental illness remain the undeserving sick of our society and our health service” - Michael Sharpe 
  94. 94.094.1 "If you spend 20 years gaslighting your patients, perhaps you should think twice before accusing *them* of trolling *you*". The Science Bit. Mar 21, 2019. Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  95. Halligan, Peter; Bass, Christopher; Oakley, David, eds. (Oct 2, 2003). Malingering and Illness Deception. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198515548. 
  96. 96.096.1 Sharpe, Michael (2003). "Distinguishing malingering from psychiatric disorders". In Halligan, Peter; Bass, Christopher Maurice; Oakley, David A. Malingering and Illness Deception (PDF). Oxford University Press. pp. 156–170. ISBN 9780198515548. 
  97. Sharpe M. (2010). Oxford Textbook of medicine. Fith Edition. Chapter 26.5.3. Medically unexplained symptoms in patients attending medical clinics.
  98. Wessely, Simon. (1999). Chronic fatigue and its syndromes. Hotopf, Matthew., Sharpe, Michael. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192630466. OCLC 41028978. 
  99. "Michael Sharpe skewered by @JohntheJack on Twitter". Science for ME. Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  100. "Chronisch vermoeid". demonitor.kro-ncrv.nl (in Nederlands). Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  101. 101.0101.1101.2 Anthony, Andrew (Jul 28, 2019). "ME and the perils of internet activism". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  102. 102.0102.1 "Exclusive: Science journal to withdraw chronic fatigue review amid..." Reuters. Oct 17, 2018. Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  103. 103.0103.1103.2 "Sick and tired: Online activists are silencing us, scientists say". Reuters. Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  104. 104.0104.1 BBC Radio 4 Today (Mar 18, 2019). "Michael Sharpe on Today". Retrieved Sep 12, 2019. It's important that science "isn't bent by campaigning" says @profmsharpe. He has stopped his research on chronic fatigue syndrome because of online abuse from campaigners.
  105. Blease, Charlotte; Havi, Carel; Geraghty, Keith (Dec 5, 2016). "Epistemic injustice in healthcare encounters: evidence from chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Medical Ethics. 2017 (43): 549-557. doi:10.1136/medethics-2016-103691. PMID 27920164. 
  106. Blease, Charlotte; Geraghty, Keith (Dec 6, 2016). "Mind the Gap: Ethical Failures in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome" (Journal of Medical Ethics blog). 
  107. Blease, Charlotte; Geraghty, Keith (July 2018). "Are ME/CFS Patient Organizations "Militant"?". Bioethical Inquiry. doi:10.1007/s11673-018-9866-5. 
  108. "St Cross Special Ethics Seminar with Michael Sharpe". University of Oxford. May 19, 2017. Archived from the original on Jul 13, 2019. Retrieved Mar 5, 2019. The use of such co-ordinated pressure group action against science was prominently seen in the field of climate change research but is now emerging in other areas. 
  109. "Trial By Error: Professor Sharpe's Intemperate Remarks–For Whom Is He Speaking?". Virology blog. Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  110. "St Cross Special Ethics Seminar with Michael Sharpe | St Cross College". web.archive.org. Jul 13, 2019. Retrieved Sep 30, 2019. 
  111. 111.0111.1 "ME: Treatment and Research - Hansard". hansard.parliament.uk. Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  112. Health Research Authority (2019). "Re: The PACE trial and the Committee's inquiry on Research Integrity" (PDF). Health Research Authority. 
  113. Maxmen A. (2018). A reboot for chronic fatigue syndrome research. Nature.
  114. Sharpe, Michael; Chalder, Trudie; Stone, Jon (Feb 1, 2018). "Don't reject evidence from CFS therapies". Nature. 554 (7690): 31. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-01285-x. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 29388963. 
  115. "Trial By Error: Cochrane's Report on Courtney's Complaint". Virology blog. Retrieved Sep 11, 2019. 
  116. Sharpe, M; Chalder, T; Palmer, I; Wessely, S (1997). "Chronic fatigue syndrome. A practical guide to assessment and management" (PDF). Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 19 (3): 185-99. doi:10.1016/S0163-8343(97)80315-5. PMID 9218987. 
  117. Sharpe, Michael (Sep 2002). "The report of the Chief Medical Officer's CFS/ME working group: what does it say and will it help?". Clinical Medicine JRCPL. 2 (5): 427–429. 
  118. McCrone, P; Sharpe, M; Chalder, T; Knapp, M; Johnson, AL; Goldsmith, K (Aug 1, 2012). "Adaptive Pacing, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Graded Exercise, and Specialist Medical Care for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis". PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040808. PMID 22870204. 
  119. White, PD; Goldsmith, K; Johnson, AL; Chalder, T; Sharpe, M; PACE Trial Management Group (Oct 2013). "Recovery from chronic fatigue syndrome after treatments given in the PACE trial". Psychol Med. 43 (10): 2227-2235. doi:10.1017/S0033291713000020. PMID 3776285. 
  120. Walwyn, R; Potts, L; McCrone, P; Johnson, AL; DeCesare, JC; Baber, HL; Goldsmith, KA; Sharpe, M; Chalder, T; White, PD (Nov 13, 2013). "A randomised trial of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): statistical analysis plan". Trials Journal. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-386. 
  121. Sharpe, Michael; Chalder, Trudie; White, Peter D. (Feb 2015). "The planning, implementation and publication of a complex intervention trial for chronic fatigue syndrome: the PACE trial". BJPsych Bulletin. 39 (1): 24–27. doi:10.1192/pb.bp.113.045005. ISSN 2056-4694. 
  122. Dougall, D; Johnson, A; Goldsmith, K; Sharpe, M; Angus, B; Chalder, T; White, P (Jul 2014). "Adverse events and deterioration reported by participants in the PACE trial of therapies for chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 77 (1): 20-26. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.04.002. 
  123. Chalder, T; Goldsmith, KA; White, PD; Sharpe, M; Pickles, AR (Jan 28, 2015). "Rehabilitative therapies for chronic fatigue syndrome: a secondary mediation analysis of the PACE trial". The Lancet Psychiatry. 2 (2): 141-52. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00069-8. PMID 26359750. 
  124. Sharpe, M; Goldsmith, KA; Johnson, AL; Chalder, T; Walker, J; White, PD (Oct 27, 2015). "Rehabilitative treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome: long-term follow-up from the PACE trial". The Lancet Psychiatry. 2: 1067-74. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00317-X. PMID 26521770. There was little evidence of differences in outcomes between the randomised treatment groups at long-term follow-up. 
  125. Goldsmith, KA; Chalder, T; White, PD; Sharpe, M; Pickles, AR (Nov 17, 2015). "Longitudinal mediation in the PACE randomised clinical trial of rehabilitative treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome: modelling and design considerations". Trials Journal / Paperity. 
  126. Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens S.; Sharpe, Michael; Fink, Per (2017). "Long-term economic evaluation of cognitive-behavioural group treatment versus enhanced usual care for functional somatic syndromes". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.01.005. 
  127. White, PD; Goldsmith, KA; Johnson, AL; Walwyn, R; Baber, HL; Chalder, T; Sharpe, M (May 17, 2011). "(correspondence) The PACE trial in chronic fatigue syndrome – Authors' reply". The Lancet. 377 (9780): 1834–1835. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60651-X. 
  128. Chalder, T; Goldsmith, KA; White, PD; Sharpe, M; Pickles, AR (April 2015). "(response) Author's reply - Methods and outcome reporting in the PACE trial". The Lancet Psychiatry. 2 (4): e10–e11. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00114-5. 
  129. Sharpe, M; Goldsmith, KA; Johnson, AL; Chalder, T; Walker, J; White, PD (February 2016). "(correspondence) Authors' reply - Patient reaction to the PACE trial". The Lancet Psychiatry. 3 (2): e8–e9. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00018-3. 
  130. Sharpe, M; Chalder, T; Johnson, AL; Goldsmith, KA; White, PD (2017). "Response to: Do more people recover from chronic fatigue syndrome with cognitive behaviour therapy or graded exercise therapy than with other treatments?". Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior. 5 (1). doi:10.1080/21641846.2017.1288629. 
  131. Sharpe, Michael; Goldsmith, Kim; Chalder, Trudie (Mar 12, 2019). "The PACE trial of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome: a response to WILSHIRE et al". BMC Psychology. 7 (1): 15. doi:10.1186/s40359-019-0288-x. ISSN 2050-7283. 
  132. BBC Radio 4 Today programme (Mar 18, 2019). "Michael Sharpe on The Today Programme"www.facebook.com. Retrieved Sep 12, 2019. Lay summary – unofficial transcript.

Oxford University - a prestigious university located in Oxford, England renowned for its teaching and research in health and medicine

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

Oxford criteria - A set of diagnostic criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. These criteria focus on "fatigue" as the defining symptom.

Fukuda criteria - The most commonly used diagnostic criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome, created by the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC).

medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) - Technically, this term means that no cause or explanation for the patient's symptoms has yet been found. However, patients diagnosed with "MUPS" are generally lumped into a psychosomatic, or psychologically-caused category by those in the medical profession, without any scientific basis for doing so.

PACE trial - A controversial study which claimed that CBT and GET were effective in treating "CFS/ME", despite the fact that its own data did not support this conclusion. Its results and methodology were widely disputed by patients, scientists, and the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) - A type of psychotherapy geared toward modifying alleged unhealthy thinking, behaviors or illness beliefs. One of the treatment arms used in the controversial PACE trial.

graded exercise therapy (GET) - A gradual increase in exercise or activity, according to a pre-defined plan. Focuses on overcoming the patient's alleged unhelpful illness beliefs that exertion can exacerbate symptoms, rather than on reversing physical deconditioning. Considered controversial, and possibly harmful, in the treatment or management of ME. One of the treatment arms of the controversial PACE trial.

somatic symptom disorder - A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience. Although "Somatic Symptom Disorder" is the term used by DSM-5, the term "Bodily Distress Disorder" has been proposed for ICD-11. (Learn more: www.psychologytoday.com)

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) - A type of psychotherapy geared toward modifying alleged unhealthy thinking, behaviors or illness beliefs. One of the treatment arms used in the controversial PACE trial.

ME/CFS - An acronym that combines myalgic encephalomyelitis with chronic fatigue syndrome. Sometimes they are combined because people have trouble distinguishing one from the other. Sometimes they are combined because people see them as synonyms of each other.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality is a United States government agency under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Their mission is "to produce evidence to make health care safer, higher quality, more accessible, equitable, and affordable. A representative of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality sat on the (now disbanded) CFSAC committee as an Ex Officio Member.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality is a United States government agency under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Their mission is "to produce evidence to make health care safer, higher quality, more accessible, equitable, and affordable. A representative of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality sat on the (now disbanded) CFSAC committee as an Ex Officio Member.

National Institutes of Health (NIH) - A set of biomedical research institutes operated by the U.S. government, under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health (NIH) - A set of biomedical research institutes operated by the U.S. government, under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a U.S. government agency dedicated to epidemiology and public health. It operates under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a U.S. government agency dedicated to epidemiology and public health. It operates under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services.

cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) - A type of psychotherapy geared toward modifying alleged unhealthy thinking, behaviors or illness beliefs. One of the treatment arms used in the controversial PACE trial.

BMJ - The BMJ (previously the British Medical Journal) is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

graded exercise therapy (GET) - A gradual increase in exercise or activity, according to a pre-defined plan. Focuses on overcoming the patient's alleged unhelpful illness beliefs that exertion can exacerbate symptoms, rather than on reversing physical deconditioning. Considered controversial, and possibly harmful, in the treatment or management of ME. One of the treatment arms of the controversial PACE trial.

bias - Bias in research is "a systematic deviation of an observation from the true clinical state".

Oxford University - a prestigious university located in Oxford, England renowned for its teaching and research in health and medicine

medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) - Technically, this term means that no cause or explanation for the patient's symptoms has yet been found. However, patients diagnosed with "MUPS" are generally lumped into a psychosomatic, or psychologically-caused category by those in the medical profession, without any scientific basis for doing so.

medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) - Technically, this term means that no cause or explanation for the patient's symptoms has yet been found. However, patients diagnosed with "MUPS" are generally lumped into a psychosomatic, or psychologically-caused category by those in the medical profession, without any scientific basis for doing so.

medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) - Technically, this term means that no cause or explanation for the patient's symptoms has yet been found. However, patients diagnosed with "MUPS" are generally lumped into a psychosomatic, or psychologically-caused category by those in the medical profession, without any scientific basis for doing so.

medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) - Technically, this term means that no cause or explanation for the patient's symptoms has yet been found. However, patients diagnosed with "MUPS" are generally lumped into a psychosomatic, or psychologically-caused category by those in the medical profession, without any scientific basis for doing so.

somatic symptom disorder - A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience. Although "Somatic Symptom Disorder" is the term used by DSM-5, the term "Bodily Distress Disorder" has been proposed for ICD-11. (Learn more: www.psychologytoday.com)

somatic symptom disorder - A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience. Although "Somatic Symptom Disorder" is the term used by DSM-5, the term "Bodily Distress Disorder" has been proposed for ICD-11. (Learn more: www.psychologytoday.com)

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) - A psychiatric reference book published by the American Psychiatric Association, often referred to as "the psychiatrist's Bible". Although the most recent version (DSM-5) purports to be the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders, the editors of both previous versions of the manual have heavily criticized the current version due to the climate of secrecy that shrouded the development of the latest version. 69% of the people who worked on DSM-5 reported having ties to the pharmaceutical industry. Dr. Allen Frances, who headed the development of the previous version, warned of dangerous unintended consequences such as new false 'epidemics'. The British Psychological Society criticized DSM-5 diagnoses as "clearly based largely on social norms, with 'symptoms' that all rely on subjective judgements" and expressed a major concern that "clients and the general public are negatively affected by the continued and continuous medicalisation of their natural and normal responses to their experiences". A petition signed by over 13,000 mental health professionals stated that the lowered diagnostic thresholds in DSM-5, combined with entirely subjective criteria based on western social norms, would "lead to inappropriate medical treatment of vulnerable populations". The director of the US National Institute of Mental Health, Dr. Thomas R. Insel, pointed out that the diagnoses in DSM-5 had no scientific validity whatsoever. (Learn more: www.scientificamerican.com)

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) - A psychiatric reference book published by the American Psychiatric Association, often referred to as "the psychiatrist's Bible". Although the most recent version (DSM-5) purports to be the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders, the editors of both previous versions of the manual have heavily criticized the current version due to the climate of secrecy that shrouded the development of the latest version. 69% of the people who worked on DSM-5 reported having ties to the pharmaceutical industry. Dr. Allen Frances, who headed the development of the previous version, warned of dangerous unintended consequences such as new false 'epidemics'. The British Psychological Society criticized DSM-5 diagnoses as "clearly based largely on social norms, with 'symptoms' that all rely on subjective judgements" and expressed a major concern that "clients and the general public are negatively affected by the continued and continuous medicalisation of their natural and normal responses to their experiences". A petition signed by over 13,000 mental health professionals stated that the lowered diagnostic thresholds in DSM-5, combined with entirely subjective criteria based on western social norms, would "lead to inappropriate medical treatment of vulnerable populations". The director of the US National Institute of Mental Health, Dr. Thomas R. Insel, pointed out that the diagnoses in DSM-5 had no scientific validity whatsoever. (Learn more: www.scientificamerican.com)

somatic symptom disorder - A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience. Although "Somatic Symptom Disorder" is the term used by DSM-5, the term "Bodily Distress Disorder" has been proposed for ICD-11. (Learn more: www.psychologytoday.com)

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) - A psychiatric reference book published by the American Psychiatric Association, often referred to as "the psychiatrist's Bible". Although the most recent version (DSM-5) purports to be the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders, the editors of both previous versions of the manual have heavily criticized the current version due to the climate of secrecy that shrouded the development of the latest version. 69% of the people who worked on DSM-5 reported having ties to the pharmaceutical industry. Dr. Allen Frances, who headed the development of the previous version, warned of dangerous unintended consequences such as new false 'epidemics'. The British Psychological Society criticized DSM-5 diagnoses as "clearly based largely on social norms, with 'symptoms' that all rely on subjective judgements" and expressed a major concern that "clients and the general public are negatively affected by the continued and continuous medicalisation of their natural and normal responses to their experiences". A petition signed by over 13,000 mental health professionals stated that the lowered diagnostic thresholds in DSM-5, combined with entirely subjective criteria based on western social norms, would "lead to inappropriate medical treatment of vulnerable populations". The director of the US National Institute of Mental Health, Dr. Thomas R. Insel, pointed out that the diagnoses in DSM-5 had no scientific validity whatsoever. (Learn more: www.scientificamerican.com)

somatic symptom disorder - A psychiatric term to describe an alleged condition whereby a person's thoughts somehow cause physical symptoms. The actual existence of such a condition is highly controversial, due to a lack of scientific evidence. It is related to other psychiatric terms, such as "psychosomatic", "neurasthenia", and "hysteria". Older terms include "somatization", "somatoform disorder", and "conversion disorder". Such terms refer to a scientifically-unsupported theory that claims that a wide range of physical symptoms can be created by the human mind, a theory which has been criticized as "mind over matter" parapsychology, a pseudoscience. Although "Somatic Symptom Disorder" is the term used by DSM-5, the term "Bodily Distress Disorder" has been proposed for ICD-11. (Learn more: www.psychologytoday.com)

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

myalgic encephalopathy - An alternate term that is sometimes used for myalgic encephalomyelitis, by people who believe the evidence for inflammation in ME is insufficient. This terminology reflects the belief that the "-itis" suffix implies inflammation.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) - A disease often marked by neurological symptoms, but fatigue is sometimes a symptom as well. Some diagnostic criteria distinguish it from chronic fatigue syndrome, while other diagnostic criteria consider it to be a synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome. A defining characteristic of ME is post-exertional malaise (PEM), or post-exertional neuroimmune exhaustion (PENE), which is a notable exacerbation of symptoms brought on by small exertions. PEM can last for days or weeks. Symptoms can include cognitive impairments, muscle pain (myalgia), trouble remaining upright (orthostatic intolerance), sleep abnormalities, and gastro-intestinal impairments, among others. An estimated 25% of those suffering from ME are housebound or bedbound. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies ME as a neurological disease.

PACE trial - A controversial study which claimed that CBT and GET were effective in treating "CFS/ME", despite the fact that its own data did not support this conclusion. Its results and methodology were widely disputed by patients, scientists, and the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

PACE trial - A controversial study which claimed that CBT and GET were effective in treating "CFS/ME", despite the fact that its own data did not support this conclusion. Its results and methodology were widely disputed by patients, scientists, and the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

randomized controlled trial (RCT) - A trial in which participants are randomly assigned to two groups, with one group receiving the treatment being studied and a control or comparison group receiving a sham treatment, placebo, or comparison treatment.

pacing - The practice of staying within one's "energy envelope" by interspersing periods of activity with periods of rest. ME/CFS patients use pacing to avoid or reduce post-exertional malaise (PEM). Some patients use a heart rate monitor to help with pacing.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) - A fatigue-based illness. The term CFS was invented invented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as an replacement for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Some view CFS as a neurological disease, others use the term for any unexplained long-term fatigue. Sometimes used as a the term as a synonym of myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite the different diagnostic criteria.

BMJ - The BMJ (previously the British Medical Journal) is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) - A type of psychotherapy geared toward modifying alleged unhealthy thinking, behaviors or illness beliefs. One of the treatment arms used in the controversial PACE trial.

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.