List of abnormal findings in chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis

From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history
Jump to: navigation, search

Myalgic encephalomyelitis is a multi-system disease. Numerous biological abnormalities have been found in multiple bodily system, however no common, central cause or mechanism has yet been elucidated.

Nervous system[edit | edit source]

Central nervous system[edit | edit source]


Autonomic nervous system[edit | edit source]


Peripheral nervous system[edit | edit source]


Muscular system[edit | edit source]

Immune system[edit | edit source]

Immune dysregulation[edit | edit source]

Chronic infection[edit | edit source]

Lymphatic system[edit | edit source]

Cardiovascular system[edit | edit source]


Heart[edit | edit source]

Circulation[edit | edit source]

Blood vessels[edit | edit source]

Blood[edit | edit source]


Digestive system[edit | edit source]

Gastrointestinal tract[edit | edit source]


Liver[edit | edit source]

Nutrition[edit | edit source]

Metabolism[edit | edit source]

Cellular respiration[edit | edit source]

Exercise[edit | edit source]

  • reduced pain threshold[75]
  • translocation of bacteria[76]
  • loss of capacity to recover from acidosis on repeat exercise[77]
  • increased expression of sensory, adrenergic and immune genes following muscle exertion[78][79][80]
  • decreased oxygen utilization[81]

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mathew, Sanjay J.; Mao, Xiangling; Keegan, Kathryn A.; Levine, Susan M.; Smith, Eric L. P.; Heier, Linda A.; Otcheretko, Viktor; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Shungu, Dikoma C. (Apr 2009). "Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid lactate is increased in chronic fatigue syndrome compared with generalized anxiety disorder: anin vivo3.0 T1H MRS imaging study". NMR in Biomedicine. 22 (3): 251–258. doi:10.1002/nbm.1315. ISSN 0952-3480. 
  2. Murrough, James W.; Mao, Xiangling; Collins, Katherine A.; Kelly, Chris; Andrade, Gizely; Nestadt, Paul; Levine, Susan M.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Shungu, Dikoma C. (Jul 2010). "Increased ventricular lactate in chronic fatigue syndrome measured by 1H MRS imaging at 3.0 T. II: comparison with major depressive disorder". NMR in Biomedicine. 23 (6): 643–650. doi:10.1002/nbm.1512. ISSN 1099-1492. PMID 20661876. 
  3. Shungu, Dikoma C.; Weiduschat, Nora; Murrough, James W.; Mao, Xiangling; Pillemer, Sarah; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Medow, Marvin S.; Natelson, Benjamin H.; Stewart, Julian M. (Sep 2012). "Increased ventricular lactate in chronic fatigue syndrome. III. Relationships to cortical glutathione and clinical symptoms implicate oxidative stress in disorder pathophysiology". NMR in biomedicine. 25 (9): 1073–1087. doi:10.1002/nbm.2772. ISSN 1099-1492. PMC 3896084Freely accessible. PMID 22281935. 
  4. Natelson, Benjamin H.; Vu, Diana; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mao, Xiangling; Blate, Michelle; Kang, Guoxin; Soto, Eli; Kapusuz, Tolga; Shungu, Dikoma C. (Jan 2, 2017). "Elevations of ventricular lactate levels occur in both chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia". Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior. 5 (1): 15–20. doi:10.1080/21641846.2017.1280114. ISSN 2164-1846. PMC 5754037Freely accessible. PMID 29308330. 
  5. Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Mizuno, Kei; Ishii, Akira; Wada, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tazawa, Shusaku; Onoe, Kayo; Fukuda, Sanae; Kawabe, Joji (Jun 1, 2014). "Neuroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: An 11C-(R)-PK11195 PET Study". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 55 (6): 945–950. doi:10.2967/jnumed.113.131045. ISSN 0161-5505. PMID 24665088. 
  6. Zeineh, Michael M; Kang, James; Atlas, Scott W; et al. (Oct 29, 2014), "Right Arcuate Fasciculus Abnormality in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", Radiology, 274 (2): 517–526, doi:10.1148/radiol.14141079 
  7. "Evidence of widespread metabolite abnormalities in Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: assessment with whole-brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy". link.springer.com. 2019. doi:10.1007/s11682-018-0029-4. Retrieved Jan 17, 2019. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Puri, B K; Jakeman, P M; Agour, M; Gunatilake, K D R; Fernando, K A C; Gurusinghe, A I; Treasaden, I H; Waldman, A D; Gishen, P (Jul 2012). "Regional grey and white matter volumetric changes in myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome): a voxel-based morphometry 3 T MRI study". The British Journal of Radiology. 85 (1015): e270–e273. doi:10.1259/bjr/93889091. ISSN 0007-1285. PMC 3474083Freely accessible. PMID 22128128. 
  9. Shan, Zack Y.; Kwiatek, Richard; Burnet, Richard; Del Fante, Peter; Staines, Donald R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M.; Barnden, Leighton R. (Apr 28, 2016). "Progressive brain changes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A longitudinal MRI study". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 44 (5): 1301–1311. doi:10.1002/jmri.25283. ISSN 1053-1807. PMC 5111735Freely accessible. PMID 27123773. 
  10. Gerwin Morris, Michael Maes, see citations 12 through 27 in "Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics" BMC Medicine, 17 September 2013
  11. Miwa, K (Jul 2015). "Cardiac dysfunction and orthostatic intolerance in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and a small left ventricle". Heart and Vessels. 30 (4): 484–489. 
  12. Behan, W. M. H.; More, I. A. R.; Behan, P. O. (Dec 1991). "Mitochondrial abnormalities in the postviral fatigue syndrome". Acta Neuropathologica. 83 (1): 61–65. doi:10.1007/bf00294431. ISSN 0001-6322. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Sensory characterization of somatic parietal tissues in humans with chronic fatigue syndrome". Neuroscience Letters. 208 (2): 117–120. Apr 19, 1996. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(96)12559-3. ISSN 0304-3940. 
  14. Zhang, C.; Baumer, A.; Mackay, I. R.; Linnane, A. W.; Nagley, P. (Apr 1995). "Unusual pattern of mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle of an adult human with chronic fatigue syndrome". Human Molecular Genetics. 4 (4): 751–754. ISSN 0964-6906. PMID 7633428. 
  15. Albrecht, Robert (Mar 21, 1964). "Epidemic Neuromyasthenia Outbreak in a Convent in New York State". Journal of the American Medical Association. 187: 904–907. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Gow, J. W.; Behan, W. M. H.; Simpson, K.; McGarry, F.; Keir, S.; Behan, P. O. (Jan 1, 1994). "Studies on Enterovirus in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 18 (Supplement_1): S126–S129. doi:10.1093/clinids/18.Supplement_1.S126. ISSN 1537-6591. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Cunningham, Louise; Bowles, N. E.; Lane, R. J. M.; Dubowitz, V.; Archard, L. C. (1990). "Persistence of enteroviral RNA in chronic fatigue syndrome is associated with the abnormal production of equal amounts of positive and negative strands of enteroviral RNA". Journal of General Virology. 71 (6): 1399–1402. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-71-6-1399. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Archard, L C; Bowles, N E; Behan, P O; Bell, E J; Doyle, D (Jun 1, 1988). "Postviral Fatigue Syndrome: Persistence of Enterovirus RNA in Muscle and Elevated Creatine Kinase, Postviral Fatigue Syndrome: Persistence of Enterovirus RNA in Muscle and Elevated Creatine Kinase". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 81 (6): 326–329. doi:10.1177/014107688808100608. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 1291623Freely accessible. PMID 3404526. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Gow, J. W.; Behan, W. M.; Clements, G. B.; Woodall, C.; Riding, M.; Behan, P. O. (Mar 23, 1991). "Enteroviral RNA sequences detected by polymerase chain reaction in muscle of patients with postviral fatigue syndrome". BMJ. 302 (6778): 692–696. doi:10.1136/bmj.302.6778.692. ISSN 0959-8138. PMID 1850635. 
  20. Brown, Audrey E; Jones, David E; Walker, Mark; Newton, Julia L (Apr 2, 2015), "Abnormalities of AMPK activation and glucose uptake in cultured skeletal muscle cells", PLoS One, 10 (4), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122982, PMID 25836975 
  21. Dobberstein, Linda J. (Apr 20, 2015), "Master Enzyme Switch Deactivated In Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia", Wellness Resources 
  22. Brenu, Ekua Weba; Huth, Teilah K.; Hardcastle, Sharni L.; Fuller, Kirsty; Kaur, Manprit; Johnston, Samantha; Ramos, Sandra B.; Staines, Don R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M. (Apr 2014). "Role of adaptive and innate immune cells in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis". International Immunology. 26 (4): 233–242. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxt068. ISSN 1460-2377. PMID 24343819. 
  23. Victoria Scott, David Strayer (2015). "Low NK Cell Activity in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Relationship to Symptom Severity". Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology. 06 (04). doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000348. ISSN 2155-9899. 
  24. Montoya, Jose G.; Holmes, Tyson H.; Anderson, Jill N.; Maecker, Holden T.; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Valencia, Ian J.; Chu, Lily; Younger, Jarred W.; Tato, Cristina M.; Davis, Mark M. (2017), "Cytokine signature associated with disease severity in chronic fatigue syndrome patients", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (34): E7150-E7158, doi:10.1073/pnas.1710519114 
  25. Study finds evidence of downregulated immune system in ME/CFS patients - MEAction - Landi, et al.
  26. New Research Discovers Evidence of Atypical & Classical ME/CFS - The Microbe Discovery Project - Apr 4, 2017
  27. Brenu, Ekua Weba; Huth, Teilah K.; Hardcastle, Sharni L.; Fuller, Kirsty; Kaur, Manprit; Johnston, Samantha; Ramos, Sandra B.; Staines, Don R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M. (Apr 2014). "Role of adaptive and innate immune cells in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis". International Immunology. 26 (4): 233–242. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxt068. ISSN 1460-2377. PMID 24343819. 
  28. Rönnberg, E; Calounova, G; Pejler, G (June 2017). "Novel characterisation of mast cell phenotypes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis patients". Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 35 (2): 75–81. 
  29. Loebel, Madlen; Grabowski, Patricia; Heidecke, Harald; Bauer, Sandra; Hanitsch, Leif G.; Wittke, Kirsten; Meisel, Christian; Reinke, Petra; Volk, Hans-Dieter (Feb 2016). "Antibodies to β adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 52: 32–39. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.09.013. ISSN 1090-2139. PMID 26399744. 
  30. Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivanka; Leunis, Jean-Claude (Dec 2007). "Increased serum IgM antibodies directed against phosphatidyl inositol (Pi) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: evidence that an IgM-mediated immune response against Pi is one factor underpinning the comorbidity between both CFS and depression". Neuro Endocrinology Letters. 28 (6): 861–867. ISSN 0172-780X. PMID 18063934. 
  31. Maes, Michael; Ringel, Karl; Kubera, Marta; Anderson, George; Morris, Gerwyn; Galecki, Piotr; Geffard, Michel (Sep 5, 2013). "In myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, increased autoimmune activity against 5-HT is associated with immuno-inflammatory pathways and bacterial translocation". Journal of Affective Disorders. 150 (2): 223–230. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.03.029. ISSN 1573-2517. PMID 23664637. 
  32. McGarry, Frances; Gow, John; Behan, Peter O (Jun 1, 1994), "Enterovirus in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome", Annals of Internal Medicine, 120 (11): 972–973, doi:10.7326/0003-4819-120-11-199406010-00020 
  33. Chia, JKS; Chia, AY (Jan 1, 2008), "Chronic fatigue syndrome is associated with chronic enterovirus infection of the stomach", Journal of Clinical Pathology, 61 (1): 43–48, doi:10.1136/jcp.2007.050054, PMID 17872383 
  34. 34.0 34.1 Miwa K., "Cardiac dysfunction and orthostatic intolerance in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and a small left ventricle" Heart Vessels, July 2015
  35. Hollingsworth K.G "Impaired cardiac function in chronic fatigue syndrome measured using magnetic resonance cardiac tagging" J Intern Med 2012; 271: 264–270.
  36. Olimulder, M.A.G.M.; Galjee, M.A.; Wagenaar, L.J.; van Es, J.; van der Palen, J.; Visser, F. C.; Vermeulen, R.C.W.; von Birgelen, C. (2016), "Chronic fatigue syndrome in women assessed with combined cardiac magnetic resonance imaging", Netherlands Heart Journal, doi:10.1007/s12471-016-0885-8 
  37. Reduced cardiac volumes in chronic fatigue syndrome associate with plasma volume but not length of disease: a cohort study
  38. Miwa K., Fujita M., "Cardiovascular dysfunction with low cardiac output due to a small heart in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome" Intern Med, 2009;48(21):1849-54
  39. Jason LA, Corradi K, Gress S, Williams S, Torres-Harding S, "Causes of death among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome" Health Care Women Int., 27(7): 615-626. 2006
  40. Natelson, Benjamin; Mao, Xiangling; Stegner, Aaron J; Lange, Gudrun; Vu, Diana; Blate, Michelle; Kang, Guoxin; Soto, Eli; Kapusuz, Tolga; Shungu, Dikoma C (2017), "Multimodal and simultaneous assessments of brain and spinal fluid abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome and the effects of psychiatric comorbidity", Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 375: 411-416, doi:10.1016/j.jns.2017.02.046 
  41. Costa, D. C.; Tannock, C.; Brostoff, J. (Nov 1995). "Brainstem perfusion is impaired in chronic fatigue syndrome". QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians. 88 (11): 767–773. ISSN 1460-2725. PMID 8542261. 
  42. Barnden, Leighton R.; Crouch, Benjamin; Kwiatek, Richard; Burnet, Richard; Mernone, Anacleto; Chryssidis, Steve; Scroop, Garry; Fante, Peter Del (2011). "A brain MRI study of chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence of brainstem dysfunction and altered homeostasis". NMR in Biomedicine. 24 (10): 1302–1312. doi:10.1002/nbm.1692. ISSN 1099-1492. PMC 4369126Freely accessible. PMID 21560176. 
  43. Biswal, Bharat; Kunwar, Pratap; Natelson, Benjamin H. (Feb 15, 2011). "Cerebral blood flow is reduced in chronic fatigue syndrome as assessed by arterial spin labeling". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 301 (1): 9–11. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2010.11.018. ISSN 0022-510X. 
  44. Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Farkas, Jeffrey; Natelson, Benjamin H. (2006). "Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome have reduced absolute cortical blood flow". Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 26 (2): 83–86. doi:10.1111/j.1475-097X.2006.00649.x. ISSN 1475-097X. 
  45. Freedman, M.; Kirsh, J. C.; Gray, B.; Chung, D. G.; Abbey, S. E.; Salit, I. E.; Ichise, M. (Oct 1992). "Assessment of regional cerebral perfusion by 99Tcm-HMPAO SPECT in chronic fatigue syndrome". Nuclear medicine communications. 13 (10): 767–772. ISSN 0143-3636. PMID 1491843. 
  46. Chao, C. C.; Hu, S.; Pheley, A. M.; Schenck, C. H.; Grammith, F. C.; Sirr, S. A.; Peterson, P. K. (Mar 1, 1994). "Effects of mild exercise on cytokines and cerebral blood flow in chronic fatigue syndrome patients". Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 1 (2): 222–226. ISSN 1071-412X. PMID 7496949. 
  47. Lange, Gudrun; Wang, Samuel; DeLuca, John; Natelson, Benjamin H. (Sep 28, 1998). "Neuroimaging in chronic fatigue syndrome". The American Journal of Medicine. 105 (3, Supplement 1): 50S–53S. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(98)00175-2. ISSN 0002-9343. 
  48. CMRC Conference 2017 day 1- Prof Dr Frans Visser, retrieved Sep 3, 2019 
  49. Patrick Neary, J.; Roberts, Andy D. W.; Leavins, Nina; Harrison, Michael F.; Croll, James C.; Sexsmith, James R. (Nov 2008). "Prefrontal cortex oxygenation during incremental exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome". Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 28 (6): 364–372. doi:10.1111/j.1475-097x.2008.00822.x. ISSN 1475-0961. 
  50. Peterson, P K; Sirr, S A; Grammith, F C; Schenck, C H; Pheley, A M; Hu, S; Chao, C C (Mar 1994). "Effects of mild exercise on cytokines and cerebral blood flow in chronic fatigue syndrome patients". Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 1 (2): 222–226. ISSN 1071-412X. PMID 7496949. 
  51. Hurwitz, BE; Coryell, VT; Parker, M; Martin, P; LaPerriere ...., A; Bilsker, MS. "Chronic fatigue syndrome: illness severity, sedentary lifestyle, blood volume and evidence of diminished cardiac function". Clinical Science. 118 (2): 125–135. 
  52. Streeten, DHP; Bell, D (1998). "Circulating Blood Volume in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 4: 3–11. 
  53. Simpson, LO (1989), "Nondiscocytic erythrocytes in myalgic encephalomyelitis", The New Zealand Medical Journal, 102 (864): 126-127, PMID 2927808 
  54. Richards, RS; Wang, L; Jelinek, H (Jan 2007). "Erythrocyte oxidative damage in chronic fatigue syndrome". Archives of Medical Research. 38 (1): 94–98. 
  55. Miller, Ruth R; Reid, W Darlene; Mattman, Andre; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Steiner, Theodore; Parker, Shoshana; Gardy, Jennifer; Tang, Patrick; Patrick, David M (May 20, 2015). "Submaximal exercise testing with near-infrared spectroscopy in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients compared to healthy controls: a case–control study". Journal of Translational Medicine. 13 (1). doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0527-8. ISSN 1479-5876. PMC 4438583Freely accessible. PMID 25990639. 
  56. Logan, Alan C; Venket Rao, A; Irani, Dinaz (Jun 2003). "Chronic fatigue syndrome: lactic acid bacteria may be of therapeutic value". Medical Hypotheses. 60 (6): 915–923. doi:10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00096-3. ISSN 0306-9877. 
  57. Sheedy, John R.; Wettenhall, Richard E. H.; Scanlon, Denis; Gooley, Paul R.; Lewis, Donald P.; McGregor, Neil; Stapleton, David I.; Butt, Henry L.; DE Meirleir, Kenny L. (Jul 2009). "Increased d-lactic Acid intestinal bacteria in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". In Vivo (Athens, Greece). 23 (4): 621–628. ISSN 0258-851X. PMID 19567398. 
  58. https://getinfo.de/en/search/id/BLCP%3ACN055885616/%60Bacterial-Colonosis-in-Patients-with-Persistent/
  59. "High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals alterations of intestinal microbiota in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients". Anaerobe. 22: 50–56. Aug 1, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2013.06.002. ISSN 1075-9964. 
  60. 60.0 60.1 Giloteaux, Ludovic; Goodrich, Julia K.; Walters, William A.; Levine, Susan M.; Ley, Ruth E.; Hanson, Maureen R. (Jun 23, 2016). "Reduced diversity and altered composition of the gut microbiome in individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome". Microbiome. 4. doi:10.1186/s40168-016-0171-4. ISSN 2049-2618. PMC 4918027Freely accessible. PMID 27338587. 
  61. Pimentel, M; Hallegua, D; Chow, EJ; et al. (Apr 1, 2000), "Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth decreases symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome: A double blind, randomized study", Gastroenterology, 118 (4): –414, doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(00)83765-8 
  62. http://www.jad-journal.com/article/S0165-0327(06)00355-7/abstract
  63. Zalewski, Pawel; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Frith, James; Maclachlan, Laura; Blamire, Andrew; Newton, Julia L. (Jun 18, 2018). "Liver volume is lower and associates with resting and dynamic blood pressure variability in chronic fatigue syndrome". Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior. 6 (3): 141–152. doi:10.1080/21641846.2018.1488525. ISSN 2164-1846. 
  64. I.M., Cox; M.J., Campbell; D., Dowson (1991), "Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome", The Lancet, doi:10.1016/0140-6736(91)91371-Z, PMID 1672392 
  65. Plioplys, A. V.; Plioplys, S. (1995). "Serum levels of carnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical correlates". Neuropsychobiology. 32 (3): 132–138. doi:10.1159/000119226. ISSN 0302-282X. PMID 8544970. 
  66. Kuratsune, H.; Yamaguti, K.; Takahashi, M.; Misaki, H.; Tagawa, S.; Kitani, T. (January 1994), "Acylcarnitine deficiency in chronic fatigue syndrome", Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 18 Suppl 1: –62–67, ISSN 1058-4838, PMID 8148455 
  67. Majeed, T.; de Simone, C.; Famularo, G.; Marcellini, S.; Behan, P. O. (November 1995), "Abnormalities of carnitine metabolism in chronic fatigue syndrome", European Journal of Neurology, 2 (5): 425–428, doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.1995.tb00151.x, ISSN 1351-5101, PMID 24283722 
  68. Armstrong, Christopher W.; McGregor, Neil R.; Lewis, Donald P.; Butt, Henry L.; Gooley, Paul R. (May 30, 2015). "Metabolic profiling reveals anomalous energy metabolism and oxidative stress pathways in chronic fatigue syndrome patients". Metabolomics. 11 (6): 1626–1639. doi:10.1007/s11306-015-0816-5. ISSN 1573-3882. 
  69. Fluge, Øystein; Mella, Olav; Bruland, Ove; Risa, Kristin; Dyrstad, Sissel E.; Alme, Kine; Rekeland, Ingrid G.; Sapkota, Dipak; Røsland, Gro V. (Dec 22, 2016). "Metabolic profiling indicates impaired pyruvate dehydrogenase function in myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome". JCI insight. 1 (21): e89376. doi:10.1172/jci.insight.89376. ISSN 2379-3708. PMC 5161229Freely accessible. PMID 28018972. 
  70. Plioplys, AV; Plioplys, S (1995), "Serum levels of carnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical correlates", Neuropsychobiology, 32 (3): 132-8, PMID 8544970 
  71. Lane, R J; Barrett, M C; Taylor, D J; Kemp, G J; Lodi, R (May 1998), "Heterogeneity in chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence from magnetic resonance spectroscopy of muscle", Neuromuscul Disord, 1998 May;8 (3-4): 204-9, PMID 9631403 
  72. Jones, David EJ; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Taylor, Renee R; Blamire, Andrew M; Newton, Julia L (Apr 2010), "Abnormalities in pH handling by peripheral muscle and potential regulation by the autonomic nervous system in chronic fatigue syndrome", J Intern Med, 267 (4): 394-401, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2009.02160.x, PMID 20433583 
  73. Lengert, Nicor; Drossel, Barbara (Jul 2015), "In silico analysis of exercise intolerance in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome", Biophysical Chemistry, 202: 21–31, doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2015.03.009, PMID 25899994 
  74. Naviaux, Robert K.; Naviaux, Jane C.; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A. Taylor; Alaynick, William A.; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne (Sep 13, 2016). "Metabolic features of chronic fatigue syndrome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (37): E5472–E5480. doi:10.1073/pnas.1607571113. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 27573827. 
  75. Whiteside, Alan; Hansen, Stig; Chaudhuri, Abhijit (2004), "Exercise lowers pain threshold in chronic fatigue syndrome", Pain, 109 (3): 497-9, doi:10.1016/j.pain.2004.02.029, PMID 15157711 
  76. Shukla, Sanjay K; Cook, Dane; Meyer, Jacob; et al. (Dec 18, 2015), "Changes in Gut and Plasma Microbiome following Exercise Challenge in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)", PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145453, PMID 26683192 
  77. Jones, David EJ; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Jakovljevic, Djordje G; et al. (Jul 12, 2011), "Loss of capacity to recover from acidosis on repeat exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome", Eur J Clin Invest, 2012 Feb;42 (2): 186-94, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02567.x, PMID 21749371 
  78. Light, Alan R; White, Andrea T; Hughen, Ronald W; Light, Kathleen C (Jul 31, 2009), "Moderate exercise increases expression for sensory, adrenergic, and immune genes in chronic fatigue syndrome patients but not in normal subjects", J Pain, 2009 Oct;10 (10): 1099-112, doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2009.06.003, PMID 19647494 
  79. Light, Alan R; Bateman, Lucinda; Jo, D; et al. (Jul 13, 2011), "Gene expression alterations at baseline and following moderate exercise in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia Syndrome", J Intern Med, 2012 271 (1): 64-81, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02405.x, PMID 21615807 
  80. White, Andrea T; Light, Alan R; Hughen, Ronald W; VanHaitsma, Timothy A; Light, Kathleen C (Dec 30, 2011), "Differences in metabolite-detecting, adrenergic, and immune gene expression after moderate exercise in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, patients with multiple sclerosis, and healthy controls", Psychosom Med, 2012 Jan;74 (1): 46-54, doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31824152ed, PMID 22210239 
  81. Vermeulen, Ruud CW; Vermeulen van Eck, Ineke WG (2014). "Decreased oxygen extraction during cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome". Journal of Translational Medicine. 12 (1): 20. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-12-20. ISSN 1479-5876. PMC 3903040Freely accessible. PMID 24456560. 

The information provided at this site is not intended to diagnose or treat any illness.
From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.